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Research Article

Threats to Validity in the Design and Conduct of Preclinical Efficacy Studies: A Systematic Review of Guidelines for In Vivo Animal Experiments

  • Valerie C. Henderson,

    Affiliation: Studies of Translation, Ethics and Medicine (STREAM) Group, Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

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  • Jonathan Kimmelman mail,

    jonathan.kimmelman@mcgill.ca

    Affiliation: Studies of Translation, Ethics and Medicine (STREAM) Group, Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

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  • Dean Fergusson,

    Affiliations: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Jeremy M. Grimshaw,

    Affiliations: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Dan G. Hackam

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: July 23, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001489

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