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Research Article

Intravaginal Practices, Bacterial Vaginosis, and HIV Infection in Women: Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis

  • Nicola Low mail,

    low@ispm.unibe.ch

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

    These authors are joint first authors on this work.

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  • Matthew F. Chersich ,

    Affiliations: Centre for Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

    These authors are joint first authors on this work.

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  • Kurt Schmidlin,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Matthias Egger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Suzanna C. Francis,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert,

    Affiliation: Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Richard J. Hayes,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Jared M. Baeten,

    Affiliation: Departments of Global Health, Medicine, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Joelle Brown,

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Sinead Delany-Moretlwe,

    Affiliation: Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Hillbrow, South Africa

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  • Rupert Kaul,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Nuala McGrath,

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Somkhele, South Africa

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  • Charles Morrison,

    Affiliation: Clinical Sciences Department, FHI, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Landon Myer,

    Affiliations: Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Marleen Temmerman,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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  • Ariane van der Straten,

    Affiliation: Women's Global Health Imperative, RTI International, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Deborah Watson-Jones,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Marcel Zwahlen,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Adriane Martin Hilber

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Published: February 15, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000416

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