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Research Article

When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy in Children Aged 2–5 Years: A Collaborative Causal Modelling Analysis of Cohort Studies from Southern Africa

  • Michael Schomaker mail,

    Michael.schomaker@uct.ac.za

    Affiliation: Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

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  • Matthias Egger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • James Ndirangu,

    Affiliation: Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Somkhele, South Africa

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  • Sam Phiri,

    Affiliations: Lighthouse Trust Clinic, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Harry Moultrie,

    Affiliations: Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Karl Technau,

    Affiliation: Empilweni Service and Research Unit, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital and University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Vivian Cox,

    Affiliations: Médecins Sans Frontières South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa, Khayelitsha ART Programme, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa

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  • Janet Giddy,

    Affiliation: Sinikithemba Clinic, McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa

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  • Cleophas Chimbetete,

    Affiliation: Newlands Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe

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  • Robin Wood,

    Affiliations: Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Cape Town, South Africa, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

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  • Thomas Gsponer,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Carolyn Bolton Moore,

    Affiliations: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

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  • Helena Rabie,

    Affiliation: Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

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  • Brian Eley,

    Affiliation: School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

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  • Lulu Muhe,

    Affiliation: Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Martina Penazzato,

    Affiliations: Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, Clinical Trial Unit, Medical Research Council, London, United Kingdom

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  • Shaffiq Essajee,

    Affiliation: Clinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Olivia Keiser,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Mary-Ann Davies,

    Affiliation: Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

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  • for the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS–Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) Collaboration
  • Published: November 19, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001555

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