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Research Article

Polyclonal B Cell Differentiation and Loss of Gastrointestinal Tract Germinal Centers in the Earliest Stages of HIV-1 Infection

  • Marc C. Levesque equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Marc C. Levesque, M. Anthony Moody

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • M. Anthony Moody equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Marc C. Levesque, M. Anthony Moody

    moody007@mc.duke.edu

    Affiliations: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Kwan-Ki Hwang,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Dawn J. Marshall,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • John F. Whitesides,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Joshua D. Amos,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Thaddeus C. Gurley,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Sallie Allgood,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Benjamin B. Haynes,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Nathan A. Vandergrift,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Steven Plonk,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Daniel C. Parker,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Myron S. Cohen,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Georgia D. Tomaras,

    Affiliations: Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Paul A. Goepfert,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

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  • George M. Shaw,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

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  • Jörn E. Schmitz,

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Joseph J. Eron,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Nicholas J. Shaheen,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Charles B. Hicks,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Hua-Xin Liao,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Martin Markowitz,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Garnett Kelsoe,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • David M. Margolis,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Barton F. Haynes

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Published: July 07, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000107

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