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Research Article

The Effect of Universal Influenza Immunization on Mortality and Health Care Use

  • Jeffrey C Kwong mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jeff.kwong@utoronto.ca

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Thérèse A Stukel,

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Jenny Lim,

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Allison J McGeer,

    Affiliations: Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Microbiology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Ross E. G Upshur,

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Primary Care Research Unit, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Helen Johansen,

    Affiliation: Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Christie Sambell,

    Affiliation: Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • William W Thompson,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Deva Thiruchelvam,

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Fawziah Marra,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Lawrence W Svenson,

    Affiliations: Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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  • Douglas G Manuel

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: October 28, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050211

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