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Research Article

The Role of Viral Introductions in Sustaining Community-Based HIV Epidemics in Rural Uganda: Evidence from Spatial Clustering, Phylogenetics, and Egocentric Transmission Models

  • Mary K. Grabowski,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Justin Lessler mail,

    jlessler@jhsph.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Andrew D. Redd,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Joseph Kagaayi,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

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  • Oliver Laeyendecker,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Anthony Ndyanabo,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

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  • Martha I. Nelson,

    Affiliation: Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Derek A. T. Cummings,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • John Baptiste Bwanika,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

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  • Amy C. Mueller,

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Steven J. Reynolds,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Supriya Munshaw,

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Stuart C. Ray,

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Tom Lutalo,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

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  • Jordyn Manucci,

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Aaron A. R. Tobian,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Larry W. Chang,

    Affiliations: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Chris Beyrer,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jacky M. Jennings,

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Fred Nalugoda,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

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  • David Serwadda,

    Affiliations: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda, School of Public Health, College of Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

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  • Maria J. Wawer,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

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  • Thomas C. Quinn,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Ronald H. Gray,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Kalisizo, Uganda

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  • the Rakai Health Sciences Program
  • Published: March 04, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001610

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