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Research Article

Clustered Environments and Randomized Genes: A Fundamental Distinction between Conventional and Genetic Epidemiology

  • George Davey Smith mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: george.davey-smith@bristol.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Debbie A Lawlor,

    Affiliations: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Roger Harbord,

    Affiliation: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Nic Timpson,

    Affiliations: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Ian Day,

    Affiliations: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Shah Ebrahim

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: December 11, 2007
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040352

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