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Table of Contents: October 2011

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In the October editorial, the PLoS Medicine Editors reflect on recent research and analysis in PLoS Medicine that highlights the need to fully evaluate rapid and convenient diagnostics. They argue that while rapidly determining the cause of an illness is important, speed and convenience alone are not enough to significantly change health outcomes. In a research article published earlier in the month, Augustine Choko and colleagues assess the uptake and accuracy of home-based supervised oral HIV self-testing in Malawi, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach in a high-prevalence, low-income environment. Their findings indicate that there is strong community readiness to adopt self-testing alongside other HIV counseling and testing strategies in high HIV prevalence settings in urban Africa. Rochelle Walensky and Ingrid Bassett suggest in an accompanying Perspective article that linkage to care must be demonstrated before the success of oral HIV self-testing can be determined, commenting that “beyond making care accessible, the next phase of self-testing feasibility studies must evaluate the completion of the care cascade from testing to treatment to demonstrate true self-testing success.”

Essay

Policy Forums

Closing the Policy-Practice Gap in the Management of Child Contacts of Tuberculosis Cases in Developing Countries

Philip C. Hill, Merrin E. Rutherford, Rick Audas, Reinout van Crevel, Stephen M. Graham

Educating a New Generation of Doctors to Improve the Health of Populations in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Francesca Celletti, Teri A. Reynolds, Anna Wright, Aaron Stoertz, Manuel Dayrit

Guidelines and Guidance

STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology – Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME): An Extension of the STROBE Statement

Valentina Gallo, Matthias Egger, Valerie McCormack, Peter B. Farmer, John P. A. Ioannidis, Micheline Kirsch-Volders, Giuseppe Matullo, David H. Phillips, Bernadette Schoket, Ulf Stromberg, Roel Vermeulen, Christopher Wild, Miquel Porta, Paolo Vineis

Research Articles

The Uptake and Accuracy of Oral Kits for HIV Self-Testing in High HIV Prevalence Setting: A Cross-Sectional Feasibility Study in Blantyre, Malawi

Augustine Talumba Choko, Nicola Desmond, Emily L. Webb, Kondwani Chavula, Sue Napierala-Mavedzenge, Charlotte A. Gaydos, Simon D. Makombe, Treza Chunda, S. Bertel Squire, Neil French, Victor Mwapasa, Elizabeth L. Corbett

Universal Definition of Loss to Follow-Up in HIV Treatment Programs: A Statistical Analysis of 111 Facilities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

Benjamin H. Chi, Constantin T. Yiannoutsos, Andrew O. Westfall, Jamie E. Newman, Jialun Zhou, Carina Cesar, Martin W. G. Brinkhof, Albert Mwango, Eric Balestre, Gabriela Carriquiry, Thira Sirisanthana, Henri Mukumbi, Jeffrey N. Martin, Anna Grimsrud, Melanie Bacon, Rodolphe Thiebaut , on behalf of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Collaboration

Estimating Infection Attack Rates and Severity in Real Time during an Influenza Pandemic: Analysis of Serial Cross-Sectional Serologic Surveillance Data

Joseph T. Wu, Andrew Ho, Edward S. K. Ma, Cheuk Kwong Lee, Daniel K. W. Chu, Po-Lai Ho, Ivan F. N. Hung, Lai Ming Ho, Che Kit Lin, Thomas Tsang, Su-Vui Lo, Yu-Lung Lau, Gabriel M. Leung, Benjamin J. Cowling, J. S. Malik Peiris

The Effect of Chromosome 9p21 Variants on Cardiovascular Disease May Be Modified by Dietary Intake: Evidence from a Case/Control and a Prospective Study

Ron Do, Changchun Xie, Xiaohe Zhang, Satu Männistö, Kennet Harald, Shofiqul Islam, Swneke D. Bailey, Sumathy Rangarajan, Matthew J. McQueen, Rafael Diaz, Liu Lisheng, Xingyu Wang, Kaisa Silander, Leena Peltonen, Salim Yusuf, Veikko Salomaa, James C. Engert, Sonia S. Anand , on behalf of the INTERHEART investigators

A Statistical Model of the International Spread of Wild Poliovirus in Africa Used to Predict and Prevent Outbreaks

Kathleen M. O'Reilly, Claire Chauvin, R. Bruce Aylward, Chris Maher, Sam Okiror, Chris Wolff, Deo Nshmirimana, Christl A. Donnelly, Nicholas C. Grassly

Effects of Community-Wide Vaccination with PCV-7 on Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage in The Gambia: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

Anna Roca, Philip C. Hill, John Townend, Uzo Egere, Martin Antonio, Abdoulie Bojang, Abiodun Akisanya, Teresa Litchfield, David E. Nsekpong, Claire Oluwalana, Stephen R. C. Howie, Brian Greenwood, Richard A. Adegbola

Mendelian Randomization Study of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence of Causal Association from Population Studies

Roman Pfister, Stephen Sharp, Robert Luben, Paul Welsh, Inês Barroso, Veikko Salomaa, Aline Meirhaeghe, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naveed Sattar, Claudia Langenberg, Nicholas J. Wareham

Measuring the Performance of Vaccination Programs Using Cross-Sectional Surveys: A Likelihood Framework and Retrospective Analysis

Justin Lessler, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Rebecca F. Grais, Francisco J. Luquero, Derek A. T. Cummings, Bryan T. Grenfell