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Table of Contents: September 2009

COVER

Accentuating the negative.

Image Credit: Image adapted from photograph by Tony Fischer, Carpe Diem Photography, at flickr.com
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In this month's Editorial the PLoS Medicine Editors discuss the importance of valid negative results, and their immediate and open availability, in maintaining the integrity of the medical literature, especially when clinical effectiveness is at issue. The Editorial suggests that physicians mindful of Hippocrates's vow "first do no harm" should appreciate that a study "that questions the accepted or desired way of doing things can be at least as important as one that supports a new approach." Given the US movement to undertake comparative effectiveness research (CER)—which calls for a wide range of study designs to "assist consumers, clinicians and policy-makers in making informed decisions"—the Editorial argues for transparency in the design and reporting of all types of research, including data that cast doubt on prevailing practices.

Essays

Perspectives

Grading Quality of Evidence and Strength of Recommendations: A Perspective

Mohammed T. Ansari, Alexander Tsertsvadze, David Moher

Policy Forums

Considering Usual Medical Care in Clinical Trial Design

Liza Dawson, Deborah A. Zarin, Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Lawrence M. Friedman, Bimal Chaudhari, Steven N. Goodman

Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in High HIV Prevalence Settings: What Can Mathematical Modelling Contribute to Informed Decision Making?

UNAIDS/WHO/SACEMA Expert Group on Modelling the Impact and Cost of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention

Research in Translation

Should Burden of Disease Estimates Include Cannabis Use as a Risk Factor for Psychosis?

Louisa Degenhardt, Wayne D. Hall, Michael Lynskey, John McGrath, Jennifer McLaren, Bianca Calabria, Harvey Whiteford, Theo Vos

Research Articles

The Impact of the Demographic Transition on Dengue in Thailand: Insights from a Statistical Analysis and Mathematical Modeling

Derek A. T. Cummings, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Justin T. Lessler, Aidan McDermott, Rungnapa Prasanthong, Ananda Nisalak, Richard G. Jarman, Donald S. Burke, Robert V. Gibbons

Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Hospitalization for Bradycardia: A Population-Based Study

Laura Y. Park-Wyllie, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Ping Li, Sudeep S. Gill, Andreas Laupacis, David N. Juurlink

Trial Publication after Registration in ClinicalTrials.Gov: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Joseph S. Ross, Gregory K. Mulvey, Elizabeth M. Hines, Steven E. Nissen, Harlan M. Krumholz

Effect of Duration and Intermittency of Rifampin on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Dick Menzies, Andrea Benedetti, Anita Paydar, Ian Martin, Sarah Royce, Madhukar Pai, Andrew Vernon, Christian Lienhardt, William Burman

Standardized Treatment of Active Tuberculosis in Patients with Previous Treatment and/or with Mono-resistance to Isoniazid: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Dick Menzies, Andrea Benedetti, Anita Paydar, Sarah Royce, Madhukar Pai, William Burman, Andrew Vernon, Christian Lienhardt

Inflammatory Markers and Poor Outcome after Stroke: A Prospective Cohort Study and Systematic Review of Interleukin-6

William Whiteley, Caroline Jackson, Steff Lewis, Gordon Lowe, Ann Rumley, Peter Sandercock, Joanna Wardlaw, Martin Dennis, Cathie Sudlow