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Table of Contents: January 2009

COVER

Rape in War Is Common, Devastating, and Too Often Ignored.

Image Credit: r.marin at flickr.com
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This month's editorial (PLoS Medicine Editors, e1000021) discusses the unconscionable use of rape as a weapon of war, as documented in recent conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, and the former Yugoslavia among others, to the extent that a UN peacekeeping commander recently reported that "it has probably become more dangerous to be a woman than a soldier in an armed conflict." But while the International Criminal Tribunal recognized rape as crime of genocide under international law in 1994, rape continues to be conducted with impunity in many armed conflicts, leaving women and communities devastated. The editorial calls for more pressure from those involved in reporting, researching, and providing medical care to be put on international authorities, to take concerted action, and to make protection from sexual violence a central part of peacekeeping and security efforts.

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Editorial

The PLoS Medicine Debates

Time To Move from Presumptive Malaria Treatment to Laboratory-Confirmed Diagnosis and Treatment in African Children with Fever

Valérie D'Acremont, Christian Lengeler, Hassan Mshinda, Deo Mtasiwa, Marcel Tanner, Blaise Genton

Perspectives

Abolishing User Fees in Africa

Valéry Ridde, Slim Haddad

Autoimmune Responses in the Rheumatoid Synovium

Rene E. M Toes, Tom W. J Huizinga

Health in Action

Data Sources for Improving Estimates of the Global Burden of Injuries: Call for Contributors

Kavi Bhalla, James Harrison, Jerry Abraham, Nagesh N Borse, Ronan Lyons, Soufiane Boufous, Limor Aharonson-Daniel , on behalf of the Global Burden of Disease Injury Expert Group

Policy Forums

Learning Forum

Research Articles

Explaining Adherence Success in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Ethnographic Study

Norma C Ware, John Idoko, Sylvia Kaaya, Irene Andia Biraro, Monique A Wyatt, Oche Agbaji, Guerino Chalamilla, David R Bangsberg

Effect of Removing Direct Payment for Health Care on Utilisation and Health Outcomes in Ghanaian Children: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Evelyn Korkor Ansah, Solomon Narh-Bana, Sabina Asiamah, Vivian Dzordzordzi, Kingsley Biantey, Kakra Dickson, John Owusu Gyapong, Kwadwo Ansah Koram, Brian M Greenwood, Anne Mills, Christopher J. M Whitty

Ectopic Lymphoid Structures Support Ongoing Production of Class-Switched Autoantibodies in Rheumatoid Synovium

Frances Humby, Michele Bombardieri, Antonio Manzo, Stephen Kelly, Mark C Blades, Bruce Kirkham, Jo Spencer, Costantino Pitzalis

Reduced Glomerular Filtration Rate and Its Association with Clinical Outcome in Older Patients at Risk of Vascular Events: Secondary Analysis

Ian Ford, Vladimir Bezlyak, David J Stott, Naveed Sattar, Chris J Packard, Ivan Perry, Brendan M Buckley, J. Wouter Jukema, Anton J. M de Craen, Rudi G. J Westendorp, James Shepherd

HMGB1 Mediates Endogenous TLR2 Activation and Brain Tumor Regression

James F Curtin, Naiyou Liu, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Hikmat Assi, Kader Yagiz, Matthew R Edwards, Kathrin S Michelsen, Kurt M Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, A. K. M. Ghulam Muhammad, Mary C Clark, Moshe Arditi, Begonya Comin-Anduix, Antoni Ribas, Pedro R Lowenstein, Maria G Castro

Stress-Mediated Increases in Systemic and Local Epinephrine Impair Skin Wound Healing: Potential New Indication for Beta Blockers

Raja K Sivamani, Christine E Pullar, Catherine G Manabat-Hidalgo, David M Rocke, Richard C Carlsen, David G Greenhalgh, R. Rivkah Isseroff

Corrections