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Table of Contents: March 2012

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In their March editorial, the PLoS Medicine Editors discuss two research studies published earlier in the month on the risks associated with mode of childbirth following caesarean section. In the first article, Caroline Crowther and colleagues find that the risks of very severe outcomes—such as fetal or infant death—were lower among women who planned a repeat caesarean section than among women who planned a vaginal birth. In the second paper, Kathryn Fitzpatrick and colleagues show that the risk of uterine rupture is higher among women who have had two or more previous caesarean sections, and if the time period since the last caesarean section is less than 12 months. In a Perspective paper published alongside the research, Catherine Spong considers the risks associated with attempting a vaginal delivery after a previous caesarean section.

The Editors comment: “The bigger issue raised by these findings relates to how clinicians and women can work together to make the best possible decision when so many questions remain unanswered…Together, these findings highlight the importance of pragmatic research studies, with the overall goal of improving care for future generations of mothers and babies.”

Essay

Policy Forums

Guidance for Evidence-Informed Policies about Health Systems: Rationale for and Challenges of Guidance Development

Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, John N. Lavis, Simon Lewin, Rifat Atun, John-Arne Røttingen, Daniel Dröschel, Lise Beck, Edgardo Abalos, Fadi El-Jardali, Lucy Gilson, Sandy Oliver, Kaspar Wyss, Peter Tugwell, Regina Kulier, Tikki Pang, Andy Haines

Guidance for Evidence-Informed Policies about Health Systems: Assessing How Much Confidence to Place in the Research Evidence

Simon Lewin, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Sandy Oliver, Elie A. Akl, Gunn E. Vist, John N. Lavis, Davina Ghersi, John-Arne Røttingen, Peter Steinmann, Metin Gulmezoglu, Peter Tugwell, Fadi El-Jardali, Andy Haines

Improving Ethical Review of Research Involving Incentives for Health Promotion

Alex John London, David A. Borasky Jr, Anant Bhan , for the Ethics Working Group of the HIV Prevention Trials Network

Research Articles

Care Seeking for Neonatal Illness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

Hadley K. Herbert, Anne CC Lee, Aruna Chandran, Igor Rudan, Abdullah H. Baqui

Injectable and Oral Contraceptive Use and Cancers of the Breast, Cervix, Ovary, and Endometrium in Black South African Women: Case–Control Study

Margaret Urban, Emily Banks, Sam Egger, Karen Canfell, Dianne O'Connell, Valerie Beral, Freddy Sitas

Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Papua New Guinean Infants Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Nicolas Senn, Patricia Rarau, Danielle I. Stanisic, Leanne Robinson, Céline Barnadas, Doris Manong, Mary Salib, Jonah Iga, Nandao Tarongka, Serej Ley, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, John J. Aponte, Peter A. Zimmerman, James G. Beeson, Louis Schofield, Peter Siba, Stephen J. Rogerson, John C. Reeder, Ivo Mueller

Planned Vaginal Birth or Elective Repeat Caesarean: Patient Preference Restricted Cohort with Nested Randomised Trial

Caroline A. Crowther, Jodie M. Dodd, Janet E. Hiller, Ross R. Haslam, Jeffrey S. Robinson , on behalf of the Birth After Caesarean Study Group

CD4 Cell Count and the Risk of AIDS or Death in HIV-Infected Adults on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy with a Suppressed Viral Load: A Longitudinal Cohort Study from COHERE

The Opportunistic Infections Project Team of the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord

No Treatment versus 24 or 60 Weeks of Antiretroviral Treatment during Primary HIV Infection: The Randomized Primo-SHM Trial

Marlous L. Grijsen, Radjin Steingrover, Ferdinand W. N. M. Wit, Suzanne Jurriaans, Annelies Verbon, Kees Brinkman, Marchina E. van der Ende, Robin Soetekouw, Frank de Wolf, Joep M. A. Lange, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Jan M. Prins , on behalf of the Primo-SHM Study Group