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Table of Contents: May 2007

COVER

WHO Initiatives and Global Health Threats.

Image Credit: Photograph by Holger J. Schünemann
Issue Image

This image, which shows the World Health Organization headquarters in Geneva, takes its theme from the paper by Holger J. Schünemann and colleagues Schünemann et al.). The authors describe the development and pilot testing of the new WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines Group. In response to requests for advice from clinicians and public health professionals on how to treat H5N1 avian influenza, WHO convened a new type of panel to issue rapid, evidence-based advice. The paper is discussed further in the accompanying Editorial, which also outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the WHO's new revision of the International Health Regulations.

Editorial

Essay

Perspectives

Health in Action

Transparent Development of the WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines

Holger J Schünemann, Suzanne R Hill, Meetali Kakad, Gunn E Vist, Richard Bellamy, Lauren Stockman, Torbjørn Fosen Wisløff, Chris Del Mar, Frederick Hayden, Timothy M Uyeki, Jeremy Farrar, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Howard Zucker, John Beigel, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Tran Tinh Hien, Bülent Özbay, Norio Sugaya, Andrew D Oxman

HIV Treatment in a Conflict Setting: Outcomes and Experiences from Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Heather Culbert, David Tu, Daniel P O'Brien, Tom Ellman, Clair Mills, Nathan Ford, Tina Amisi, Keith Chan, Sarah Venis , Médecins Sans Frontières

Using Clinical Evidence in a National Continuing Medical Education Program in Italy

Lorenzo Moja, Ivan Moschetti, Alessandro Liberati, Roberto Manfrini, Christian Deligant, Roberto Satolli, Antonio Addis, Nello Martini, Pietro Dri

Policy Forum

Research in Translation

Research Articles

Childhood Conditions Influence Adult Progesterone Levels

Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora, Robert T Chatterton, Osul A Choudhury, Dora A Napolitano, Gillian R Bentley

Hyperoxic Brain Effects Are Normalized by Addition of CO2

Paul M Macey, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper

Lithium Therapy Improves Neurological Function and Hippocampal Dendritic Arborization in a Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 Mouse Model

Kei Watase, Jennifer R Gatchel, Yaling Sun, Effat Emamian, Richard Atkinson, Ronald Richman, Hidehiro Mizusawa, Harry T Orr, Chad Shaw, Huda Y Zoghbi

Association of Human Herpesvirus-6B with Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Julie Fotheringham, Donatella Donati, Nahid Akhyani, Anna Fogdell-Hahn, Alexander Vortmeyer, John D Heiss, Elizabeth Williams, Steven Weinstein, Derek A Bruce, William D Gaillard, Susumu Sato, William H Theodore, Steven Jacobson

Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthesis and Glucose Transport/Phosphorylation in Type 2 Diabetes

Julia Szendroedi, Albrecht I Schmid, Marek Chmelik, Christian Toth, Attila Brehm, Martin Krssak, Peter Nowotny, Michael Wolzt, Werner Waldhausl, Michael Roden

TXNIP Regulates Peripheral Glucose Metabolism in Humans

Hemang Parikh, Emma Carlsson, William A Chutkow, Lovisa E Johansson, Heidi Storgaard, Pernille Poulsen, Richa Saxena, Christine Ladd, P. Christian Schulze, Michael J Mazzini, Christine Bjørn Jensen, Anna Krook, Marie Björnholm, Hans Tornqvist, Juleen R Zierath, Martin Ridderstråle, David Altshuler, Richard T Lee, Allan Vaag, Leif C Groop, Vamsi K Mootha

Isoform-Specific Potentiation of Stem and Progenitor Cell Engraftment by AML1/RUNX1

Shinobu Tsuzuki, Dengli Hong, Rajeev Gupta, Keitaro Matsuo, Masao Seto, Tariq Enver

Down-Regulation of the Interferon Signaling Pathway in T Lymphocytes from Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne, Ning Yan, Serban Nacu, Jeffrey Weber, Susan P Holmes, Peter P Lee

HIV Impairs Opsonic Phagocytic Clearance of Pregnancy-Associated Malaria Parasites

Jessica Keen, Lena Serghides, Kodjo Ayi, Samir N Patel, John Ayisi, Anne van Eijk, Richard Steketee, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Kevin C Kain

Vaccinating to Protect a Vulnerable Subpopulation

Jonathan Dushoff, Joshua B Plotkin, Cecile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Mark Miller, Mark Loeb, David J. D Earn

Prophylactic and Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Monoclonal Antibodies against H5N1 Influenza

Cameron P Simmons, Nadia L Bernasconi, Amorsolo L Suguitan Jr., Kimberly Mills, Jerrold M Ward, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Tran Tinh Hien, Federica Sallusto, Do Quang Ha, Jeremy Farrar, Menno D de Jong, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Kanta Subbarao

Cost-Effectiveness of Rapid Syphilis Screening in Prenatal HIV Testing Programs in Haiti

Bruce R Schackman, Christopher P Neukermans, Sandy N. Nerette Fontain, Claudine Nolte, Patrice Joseph, Jean W Pape, Daniel W Fitzgerald

Understanding the Slow Depletion of Memory CD4+ T Cells in HIV Infection

Andrew Yates, Jaroslav Stark, Nigel Klein, Rustom Antia, Robin Callard

Corrections

Correction: Clonal Waves of Neisseria Colonisation and Disease in the African Meningitis Belt: Eight-Year Longitudinal Study in Northern Ghana

Julia Leimkugel, Abraham Hodgson, Abudulai Adams Forgor, Valentin Pflüger, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Tom Smith, Mark Achtman, Sébastien Gagneux, Gerd Pluschke