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Table of Contents: August 2014

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In this month's Editorial, the PLOS Medicine editors announce new guidelines for researchers publishing observational research in the journal.

In the absence of evidence from clinical trials, observational studies (including case-control, cohort and cross-sectional studies) may provide the best evidence available to guide clinical practice, but unlike clinical trials, observational studies lack consistent community standards for clarity in reporting.

The editors endorse four measures to promote transparency in the analysis and reporting of observational studies: completion of established reporting checklists; commitment to data sharing; clear specification of which analyses the researchers planned and which they actually did; and provision of a prospective analysis plan, if one was used in designing the study.

Editorial

Essay

Ethics, Economics, and the Use of Primaquine to Reduce Falciparum Malaria Transmission in Asymptomatic Populations

Yoel Lubell, Lisa White, Sheila Varadan, Tom Drake, Shunmay Yeung, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Richard J. Maude, Arjen Dondorp, Nicholas P. J. Day, Nicholas J. White, Michael Parker

Health in Action

From Intense Rejection to Advocacy: How Muslim Clerics Were Engaged in a Polio Eradication Initiative in Northern Nigeria

Sani-Gwarzo Nasir, Gambo Aliyu, Inuwa Ya'u, Muktar Gadanya, Muktar Mohammad, Mahmud Zubair, Samer S. El-Kamary

Guidelines and Guidance

Research Articles

The Effect of India's Total Sanitation Campaign on Defecation Behaviors and Child Health in Rural Madhya Pradesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Sumeet R. Patil, Benjamin F. Arnold, Alicia L. Salvatore, Bertha Briceno, Sandipan Ganguly, John M. Colford Jr, Paul J. Gertler

Associations between Stroke Mortality and Weekend Working by Stroke Specialist Physicians and Registered Nurses: Prospective Multicentre Cohort Study

Benjamin D. Bray, Salma Ayis, James Campbell, Geoffrey C. Cloud, Martin James, Alex Hoffman, Pippa J. Tyrrell, Charles D. A. Wolfe, Anthony G. Rudd

Stress Hyperglycaemia in Hospitalised Patients and Their 3-Year Risk of Diabetes: A Scottish Retrospective Cohort Study

David A. McAllister, Katherine A. Hughes, Nazir Lone, Nicholas L. Mills, Naveed Sattar, John McKnight, Sarah H. Wild

Heart Failure Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Thomas Callender, Mark Woodward, Gregory Roth, Farshad Farzadfar, Jean-Christophe Lemarie, St├ęphanie Gicquel, John Atherton, Shadi Rahimzadeh, Mehdi Ghaziani, Maaz Shaikh, Derrick Bennett, Anushka Patel, Carolyn S. P. Lam, Karen Sliwa, Antonio Barretto, Bambang Budi Siswanto, Alejandro Diaz, Daniel Herpin, Henry Krum, Thomas Eliasz, Anna Forbes, Alastair Kiszely, Rajit Khosla, Tatjana Petrinic, Devarsetty Praveen, Roohi Shrivastava, Du Xin, Stephen MacMahon, John McMurray, Kazem Rahimi

Hand Sanitiser Provision for Reducing Illness Absences in Primary School Children: A Cluster Randomised Trial

Patricia Priest, Joanne E. McKenzie, Rick Audas, Marion Poore, Cheryl Brunton, Lesley Reeves

Women's Access and Provider Practices for the Case Management of Malaria during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Jenny Hill, Lauren D'Mello-Guyett, Jenna Hoyt, Anna M. van Eijk, Feiko O. ter Kuile, Jayne Webster

Protective Efficacy and Safety of Three Antimalarial Regimens for the Prevention of Malaria in Young Ugandan Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Victor Bigira, James Kapisi, Tamara D. Clark, Stephen Kinara, Florence Mwangwa, Mary K. Muhindo, Beth Osterbauer, Francesca T. Aweeka, Liusheng Huang, Jane Achan, Diane V. Havlir, Philip J. Rosenthal, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey