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Table of Contents: October 2013

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In their first editorial since Dr. Larry Peiperl joined the journal as Chief Editor, the PLOS Medicine editors call for greater attention to the health of poor people in rich countries. The editors argue that income disparities in wealthy countries are a stronger determinant of health than country-level aggregate measures such as GDP or per capita income. As rich countries with wide income disparities, such as the United States, address the need to rein in health-care costs and at the same time improve health disparities, knowledge gained in resource-limited settings, regardless of the host country's overall wealth, gain increasingly global relevance. The universal availability of such knowledge in the peer-reviewed literature without subscription-fee or copyright barriers is essential to improving health. The editors conclude that, as part of a commitment to global issues in health, Open-Access medical journals should take the lead in prioritizing research on the health problems of lower-income people in high- as well as low-income countries. They note that "whether performed in poorer or richer countries, research on diseases that disproportionately affect poor people is increasingly relevant across all countries."

Editorial

Essay

Perspectives

A Transcriptional Signature for Active TB: Have We Found the Needle in the Haystack?

Adithya Cattamanchi, Nicholas D. Walter, John Z. Metcalfe, J. Lucian Davis

Saving Lives in Health: Global Estimates and Country Measurement

Daniel Low-Beer, Ryuichi Komatsu, Osamu Kunii

Policy Forums

Methodological and Policy Limitations of Quantifying the Saving of Lives: A Case Study of the Global Fund's Approach

David McCoy, Nele Jensen, Katharina Kranzer, Rashida A. Ferrand, Eline L. Korenromp

Guidelines and Guidance

Research Articles

Predicting Patterns of Long-Term CD4 Reconstitution in HIV-Infected Children Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cohort-Based Modelling Study

Marie-Quitterie Picat, Joanna Lewis, Victor Musiime, Andrew Prendergast, Kusum Nathoo, Addy Kekitiinwa, Patricia Nahirya Ntege, Diana M. Gibb, Rodolphe Thiebaut, A. Sarah Walker, Nigel Klein, Robin Callard , the ARROW Trial Team

Elimination of HIV in South Africa through Expanded Access to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Model Comparison Study

Jan A. C. Hontelez, Mark N. Lurie, Till Bärnighausen, Roel Bakker, Rob Baltussen, Frank Tanser, Timothy B. Hallett, Marie-Louise Newell, Sake J. de Vlas

Diagnostic Accuracy of Quantitative PCR (Xpert MTB/RIF) for Tuberculous Meningitis in a High Burden Setting: A Prospective Study

Vinod B. Patel, Grant Theron, Laura Lenders, Brian Matinyena, Cathy Connolly, Ravesh Singh, Yacoob Coovadia, Thumbi Ndung'u, Keertan Dheda

Detection of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected African Adults Using Whole Blood RNA Expression Signatures: A Case-Control Study

Myrsini Kaforou, Victoria J. Wright, Tolu Oni, Neil French, Suzanne T. Anderson, Nonzwakazi Bangani, Claire M. Banwell, Andrew J. Brent, Amelia C. Crampin, Hazel M. Dockrell, Brian Eley, Robert S. Heyderman, Martin L. Hibberd, Florian Kern, Paul R. Langford, Ling Ling, Marc Mendelson, Tom H. Ottenhoff, Femia Zgambo, Robert J. Wilkinson, Lachlan J. Coin, Michael Levin

Use of Expert Panels to Define the Reference Standard in Diagnostic Research: A Systematic Review of Published Methods and Reporting

Loes C. M. Bertens, Berna D. L. Broekhuizen, Christiana A. Naaktgeboren, Frans H. Rutten, Arno W. Hoes, Yvonne van Mourik, Karel G. M. Moons, Johannes B. Reitsma

Mortality in Iraq Associated with the 2003–2011 War and Occupation: Findings from a National Cluster Sample Survey by the University Collaborative Iraq Mortality Study

Amy Hagopian, Abraham D. Flaxman, Tim K. Takaro, Sahar A. Esa Al Shatari, Julie Rajaratnam, Stan Becker, Alison Levin-Rector, Lindsay Galway, Berq J. Hadi Al-Yasseri, William M. Weiss, Christopher J. Murray, Gilbert Burnham

Completeness of Reporting of Patient-Relevant Clinical Trial Outcomes: Comparison of Unpublished Clinical Study Reports with Publicly Available Data

Beate Wieseler, Natalia Wolfram, Natalie McGauran, Michaela F. Kerekes, Volker Vervölgyi, Petra Kohlepp, Marloes Kamphuis, Ulrich Grouven

Assessing Optimal Target Populations for Influenza Vaccination Programmes: An Evidence Synthesis and Modelling Study

Marc Baguelin, Stefan Flasche, Anton Camacho, Nikolaos Demiris, Elizabeth Miller, W. John Edmunds

Effect on Postpartum Hemorrhage of Prophylactic Oxytocin (10 IU) by Injection by Community Health Officers in Ghana: A Community-Based, Cluster-Randomized Trial

Cynthia K. Stanton, Samuel Newton, Luke C. Mullany, Patience Cofie, Charlotte Tawiah Agyemang, Edward Adiibokah, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Niamh Darcy, Sadaf Khan, Deborah Armbruster, John Gyapong, Seth Owusu-Agyei