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Table of Contents: July 2012

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As technology advances and devices become more affordable and adaptable, the use of technology—most notably, mobile technology—to inform and guide humanitarian relief efforts has become a reality. This month the PLOS Medicine Editors discuss the concept of digital humanitarianism and the possibilities it affords for facilitating collection and dissemination of information in crises and delivery of relief and development aid. The Editors discuss the how mobile phones were used in unexpected ways following the earthquake in Haiti to track population movements, and how worldwide, thousands of remote volunteers have aided in tracking and mapping humanitarian needs online. This mapping also occurred following the Christchurch earthquake, and more recently has been used in political crises such as that in Libya. Using these examples, the PLOS Medicine Editorial discusses the characteristics of digital humanitarianism (and its generation of data), organizations that promote digital humanitarianism, and the role of journals in a future where data can be generated faster and at higher volumes.

Editorial

Essays

Perspectives

Policy Forums

Lessons from Agriculture for the Sustainable Management of Malaria Vectors

Matthew B. Thomas, H. Charles J. Godfray, Andrew F. Read, Henk van den Berg, Bruce E. Tabashnik, Joop C. van Lenteren, Jeff K. Waage, Willem Takken

Treatment of Young Children with HIV Infection: Using Evidence to Inform Policymakers

Andrew J. Prendergast, Martina Penazzato, Mark Cotton, Philippa Musoke, Veronica Mulenga, Elaine J. Abrams, Diana M. Gibb

“Big Food,” the Consumer Food Environment, Health, and the Policy Response in South Africa

Ehimario U. Igumbor, David Sanders, Thandi R. Puoane, Lungiswa Tsolekile, Cassandra Schwarz, Christopher Purdy, Rina Swart, Solange Durão, Corinna Hawkes

Reviews

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Models, Data, and Questions—Towards Evidence-Based Decision-Making

The HIV Modelling Consortium Treatment as Prevention Editorial Writing Group

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Issues in Economic Evaluation

Till Bärnighausen, Joshua A. Salomon, Nalinee Sangrujee

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Optimising the Impact of Expanded HIV Treatment Programmes

Wim Delva, Jeffrey W. Eaton, Fei Meng, Christophe Fraser, Richard G. White, Peter Vickerman, Marie-Claude Boily, Timothy B. Hallett

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Debate and Commentary—Will Early Infection Compromise Treatment-as-Prevention Strategies?

Myron S. Cohen, Christopher Dye, Christophe Fraser, William C. Miller, Kimberly A. Powers, Brian G. Williams

HIV Treatment as Prevention: The Utility and Limitations of Ecological Observation

M. Kumi Smith, Kimberly A. Powers, Kathryn E. Muessig, William C. Miller, Myron S. Cohen

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Considerations in the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Cluster Randomized Controlled Trials of Combination HIV Prevention

Marie-Claude Boily, Benoît Mâsse, Ramzi Alsallaq, Nancy S. Padian, Jeffrey W. Eaton, Juan F. Vesga, Timothy B. Hallett

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Principles of Good HIV Epidemiology Modelling for Public Health Decision-Making in All Modes of Prevention and Evaluation

Wim Delva, David P. Wilson, Laith Abu-Raddad, Marelize Gorgens, David Wilson, Timothy B. Hallett, Alex Welte

Research Articles

Risk Factors for Death among Children Less than 5 Years Old Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2005–2007: A Cohort Study

Ciara E. O'Reilly, Peter Jaron, Benjamin Ochieng, Amek Nyaguara, Jacqueline E. Tate, Michele B. Parsons, Cheryl A. Bopp, Kara A. Williams, Jan Vinjé, Elizabeth Blanton, Kathleen A. Wannemuehler, John Vulule, Kayla F. Laserson, Robert F. Breiman, Daniel R. Feikin, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Eric Mintz

Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Amitabh B. Suthar, Stephen D. Lawn, Julia del Amo, Haileyesus Getahun, Christopher Dye, Delphine Sculier, Timothy R. Sterling, Richard E. Chaisson, Brian G. Williams, Anthony D. Harries, Reuben M. Granich

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Systematic Comparison of Mathematical Models of the Potential Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Incidence in South Africa

Jeffrey W. Eaton, Leigh F. Johnson, Joshua A. Salomon, Till Bärnighausen, Eran Bendavid, Anna Bershteyn, David E. Bloom, Valentina Cambiano, Christophe Fraser, Jan A. C. Hontelez, Salal Humair, Daniel J. Klein, Elisa F. Long, Andrew N. Phillips, Carel Pretorius, John Stover, Edward A. Wenger, Brian G. Williams, Timothy B. Hallett

Surveillance of Infection Severity: A Registry Study of Laboratory Diagnosed Clostridium difficile

Iryna Schlackow, A. Sarah Walker, Kate Dingle, David Griffiths, Sarah Oakley, John Finney, Ali Vaughan, Martin J. Gill, Derrick W. Crook, Tim E. A. Peto, David H. Wyllie

Effect of a Community-Based Nursing Intervention on Mortality in Chronically Ill Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Kenneth D. Coburn, Sherry Marcantonio, Robert Lazansky, Maryellen Keller, Nancy Davis

Consequences of Gestational Diabetes in an Urban Hospital in Viet Nam: A Prospective Cohort Study

Jane E. Hirst, Thach S. Tran, My An T. Do, Jonathan M. Morris, Heather E. Jeffery

Community Mobilization in Mumbai Slums to Improve Perinatal Care and Outcomes: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Neena Shah More, Ujwala Bapat, Sushmita Das, Glyn Alcock, Sarita Patil, Maya Porel, Leena Vaidya, Armida Fernandez, Wasundhara Joshi, David Osrin