Advertisement
Research Article

When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy in Children Aged 2–5 Years: A Collaborative Causal Modelling Analysis of Cohort Studies from Southern Africa

  • Michael Schomaker mail,

    Michael.schomaker@uct.ac.za

    Affiliation: Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

    X
  • Matthias Egger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

    X
  • James Ndirangu,

    Affiliation: Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Somkhele, South Africa

    X
  • Sam Phiri,

    Affiliations: Lighthouse Trust Clinic, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    X
  • Harry Moultrie,

    Affiliations: Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto, South Africa, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

    X
  • Karl Technau,

    Affiliation: Empilweni Service and Research Unit, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital and University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

    X
  • Vivian Cox,

    Affiliations: Médecins Sans Frontières South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa, Khayelitsha ART Programme, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa

    X
  • Janet Giddy,

    Affiliation: Sinikithemba Clinic, McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa

    X
  • Cleophas Chimbetete,

    Affiliation: Newlands Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe

    X
  • Robin Wood,

    Affiliations: Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Cape Town, South Africa, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

    X
  • Thomas Gsponer,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

    X
  • Carolyn Bolton Moore,

    Affiliations: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia

    X
  • Helena Rabie,

    Affiliation: Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa

    X
  • Brian Eley,

    Affiliation: School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

    X
  • Lulu Muhe,

    Affiliation: Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    X
  • Martina Penazzato,

    Affiliations: Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, Clinical Trial Unit, Medical Research Council, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Shaffiq Essajee,

    Affiliation: Clinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Olivia Keiser,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

    X
  • Mary-Ann Davies,

    Affiliation: Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

    X
  • for the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS–Southern Africa (IeDEA-SA) Collaboration
  • Published: November 19, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001555
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies
Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Matthias Egger, Thomas Gsponer, Olivia Keiser
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
James Ndirangu
Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Somkhele, South Africa
Sam Phiri
Lighthouse Trust Clinic, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Lilongwe, Malawi
Sam Phiri
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Harry Moultrie
Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto, South Africa
Harry Moultrie
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Karl Technau
Empilweni Service and Research Unit, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital and University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Vivian Cox
Médecins Sans Frontières South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa
Vivian Cox
Khayelitsha ART Programme, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa
Janet Giddy
Sinikithemba Clinic, McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa
Cleophas Chimbetete
Newlands Clinic, Harare, Zimbabwe
Robin Wood
Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Cape Town, South Africa
Robin Wood
Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Carolyn Bolton Moore
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Carolyn Bolton Moore
Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
Helena Rabie
Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa
Brian Eley
School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Lulu Muhe, Martina Penazzato
Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Martina Penazzato
Clinical Trial Unit, Medical Research Council, London, United Kingdom
Shaffiq Essajee
Clinton Health Access Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: Michael.schomaker@uct.ac.za

Competing Interests

LM, a WHO staff member, and MP and SE, WHO consultants, have been involved in the 2013 WHO Guidelines development process. They were involved in designing this study and writing the manuscript. MS and MAD received funding from WHO to support the data analysis. However, the opinions expressed in the manuscript are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views or policies of WHO.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MS MAD ME TG OK TG LM MP SE. Performed the experiments: JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW CBM BE HR. Analyzed the data: MS MAD. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MS TG. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: MS MAD. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: MS ME JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW TG CBM HR BE LM MP SE OK MAD. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MS ME JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW TG CBM HR BE LM MP SE OK MAD. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: MS ME JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW TG CBM HR BE LM MP SE OK MAD. Enrolled patients: JN SP HM KT VC JG CC RW CBM HR BE.