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Research Article

Serotype-Specific Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease after Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction: A Pooled Analysis of Multiple Surveillance Sites

  • Daniel R. Feikin mail,

    dfeikin@jhsph.edu

    Affiliations: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Eunice W. Kagucia,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Jennifer D. Loo,

    Affiliation: Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Ruth Link-Gelles,

    Affiliation: Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Milo A. Puhan,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Thomas Cherian,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Orin S. Levine,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Cynthia G. Whitney,

    Affiliation: Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Katherine L. O’Brien,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Matthew R. Moore,

    Affiliation: Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • the Serotype Replacement Study Group

    Membership of the Serotype Replacement Study Group is listed in the Acknowledgments.

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  • Published: September 24, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001517

About the Authors

Daniel R. Feikin, Eunice W. Kagucia, Milo A. Puhan, Orin S. Levine, Katherine L. O’Brien
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Daniel R. Feikin
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Jennifer D. Loo, Ruth Link-Gelles, Cynthia G. Whitney, Matthew R. Moore
Respiratory Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Thomas Cherian
Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Corresponding Author

Email: dfeikin@jhsph.edu

Competing Interests

The manuscript coauthors and members of the Serotype Replacement Study Group have the following conflicts: RD has, in the last five years, received grants/research support from Berna/Crucell, Wyeth/Pfizer, MSD and Protea; he has been a scientific consultant for Berna/Crucell, GlaxoSmithKline, Norvatis, Wyeth/Pfizer, Protea, MSD; he has been a speaker for Berna/Crucell, GlaxoSmithKline, and Wyeth/Pfizer; he is a shareholder of Protea/NASVAX. PDW has received research grants, honoraria, and travel expense reimbursements from vaccine manufacturers including Glaxo SmithKline, Norvatis, Sanofi Pasteur, Merck, and Wyeth, as well as from governmental agencies including the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, Health Canada, and the Public Health Agency of Canada. JE has served as a member of a data safety monitoring board (DSMB) for Novartis meningococcal and typhoid vaccines and participated in an advisory meeting of their pneumococcal protein vaccine in 2009. JE works at the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland, which has a research contract with GSK on pneumococcal vaccines. MH is a lead investigator for the Switzerland IPD surveillance program, which is partly funded by an unrestricted grant from Pfizer. JDK and OV are lead investigators of the Calgary Streptococcus pneumoniae Epidemiology Research (CASPER) study which is sponsored in part by an unrestricted grant from Pfizer, Canada. NPK has received research support from Pfizer, GSK, Merck, Sanofi Pasteur, and Norvatis. ML has received consulting fees from Pfizer. KLO has had research grants from Pfizer and GSK in the past 5 years, and has served on expert panels for GSK, Merck, and Aventis. GJT has received research funding from Wyeth and Pfizer, and has also received funding from Wyeth and Pfizer for serving on Advisory boards and as a speaker in relation to pneumococcal disease. EV has received support for travel to meetings from Wyeth/Pfizer and has been a speaker for Pfizer. IV has received funding support from Pfizer. RvK and SW are investigators of the German pneumococcal surveillance project in children/ESPED study, which is sponsored by an unrestricted grant by Pfizer Germany.

Author Contributions

Analyzed the data: EWK MAP RLG JDL DEP LHM AS RET. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: DRF EWK JDL RLG MRM. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: DRF EWK JDL RLG MAP TC OSL CGW KLO MRM RAA CVB JE JDK ML PBM EM ALR RS PGS AVG AKMZ MGB LRB TWH HC VK SJ RM SH AKK JV OGV ML GJT JK PK JM TB AM CT HI LL PVB NA EM PW AL EV RVK SW MPGL EG SM SC MG IV RD NPK AY LS AVDE HH DRM DFV PDW GD BD GE KCT JJGG AG CMA JB BG SM KM MH TC GGG MLV KA CLB EOM RW LHM AS RET DEP MA. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: DRF EWK JDL RLG MAP TC OSL CGW KLO MRM. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: DRF EWK JDL RLG MAP TC OSL CGW KLO MRM. Designed the study and oversaw data analysis: DRF CGW KLO MRM. Oversaw data collection from the sites: EWK JDL. Involved in data management and merging of site datasets: RLG. Performed meta-analyses: EWK MAP. Provided technical oversight: OSL TC CGW KLO. Organized expert meetings at WHO: TC. Advised on the study design and data interpretation: RAA CVB JE JDK ML PBM EM ALR RS PGS AVG AKMZ. Collected the site specific data and provided feedback on the analysis at various points: MGB LRB TWH HC VK SJ PBM RM SH AKK JV JDK OGV ML GJT RLG JDL MRM CGW JK PK JM TB AM CT HI LL PVB NA EM PW AL EV RVK SW MPGL EG SM SC MG IV RD NPK AY LS AVDE HH DRM DFV PDW GD BD GE KCT AVG JJGG AG CMA JB BG SM KM MH TC GGG MLV KA CLB EOM RW.