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Research Article

Threats to Validity in the Design and Conduct of Preclinical Efficacy Studies: A Systematic Review of Guidelines for In Vivo Animal Experiments

  • Valerie C. Henderson,

    Affiliation: Studies of Translation, Ethics and Medicine (STREAM) Group, Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

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  • Jonathan Kimmelman mail,

    jonathan.kimmelman@mcgill.ca

    Affiliation: Studies of Translation, Ethics and Medicine (STREAM) Group, Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada

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  • Dean Fergusson,

    Affiliations: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Jeremy M. Grimshaw,

    Affiliations: Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Dan G. Hackam

    Affiliation: Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: July 23, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001489

About the Authors

Valerie C. Henderson, Jonathan Kimmelman
Studies of Translation, Ethics and Medicine (STREAM) Group, Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada
Dean Fergusson, Jeremy M. Grimshaw
Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Dean Fergusson, Jeremy M. Grimshaw
Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Dan G. Hackam
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: jonathan.kimmelman@mcgill.ca

Competing Interests

JMG holds a Canada Research Chair in Health Knowledge Transfer and Uptake. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JK. Performed the experiments: VCH JK. Analyzed the data: VCH JK DF JMG DGH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: JK. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: VCH JK DF JMG DGH. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: VCH JK DF JMG DGH. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: VCH JK DF JMG DGH.