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Combatting Substandard and Falsified Medicines: A View from Rwanda

  • Agnes Binagwaho mail,

    agnes_binagwaho@hms.harvard.edu

    Affiliations: Ministry of Health of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America

    X
  • Roger Bate,

    Affiliation: American Enterprise Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America

    X
  • Michel Gasana,

    Affiliation: Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda

    X
  • Corine Karema,

    Affiliation: Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda

    X
  • Yves Mucyo,

    Affiliation: Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda

    X
  • John Patrick Mwesigye,

    Affiliation: Ministry of Health of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda

    X
  • Floribert Biziyaremye,

    Affiliation: Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda

    X
  • Cameron T. Nutt,

    Affiliation: Dartmouth Center for Health Care Delivery Science, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America

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  • Claire M. Wagner,

    Affiliation: Global Health Delivery Partnership, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Paul Jensen,

    Affiliation: Pivit, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America

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  • Amir Attaran

    Affiliation: University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

    X
  • Published: July 02, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001476

About the Authors

Agnes Binagwaho, John Patrick Mwesigye
Ministry of Health of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda
Agnes Binagwaho
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Agnes Binagwaho
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America
Roger Bate
American Enterprise Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
Michel Gasana, Corine Karema, Yves Mucyo, Floribert Biziyaremye
Rwanda Biomedical Center, Kigali, Rwanda
Cameron T. Nutt
Dartmouth Center for Health Care Delivery Science, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America
Claire M. Wagner
Global Health Delivery Partnership, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Paul Jensen
Pivit, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
Amir Attaran
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: agnes_binagwaho@hms.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

AB is the Minister of Health, Rwanda. AB is a member of the Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: AB RB CTN PJ AA. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: AB RB MG CK YV JPM FB CTN CMW PJ AA. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: AB RB MG CK YV JPM FB CTN CMW PJ AA. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: AB RB MG CK YV JPM FB CTN CMW PJ AA. Implemented the programs described and collected the country-level data included: AB MG CK YM JPM FB. Conducted the previously published drug quality survey from which some data is included: RB PJ.