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Research Article

Serum Iron Levels and the Risk of Parkinson Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study

  • Irene Pichler equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Irene Pichler, Fabiola Del Greco M.

    irene.pichler@eurac.edu (IP); cosetta.minelli@imperial.ac.uk (CM)

    Affiliation: Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Fabiola Del Greco M. equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Irene Pichler, Fabiola Del Greco M.

    Affiliation: Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Martin Gögele,

    Affiliation: Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Christina M. Lill,

    Affiliations: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Group, Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany, Department of Neurology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany

    X
  • Lars Bertram,

    Affiliation: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Group, Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany

    X
  • Chuong B. Do,

    Affiliation: 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, California, United States of America

    X
  • Nicholas Eriksson,

    Affiliation: 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, California, United States of America

    X
  • Tatiana Foroud,

    Affiliation: Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America

    X
  • Richard H. Myers,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • PD GWAS Consortium,
  • Michael Nalls,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Margaux F. Keller,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Biological Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

    X
  • International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium,
  • Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2,
  • Beben Benyamin,

    Affiliations: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia

    X
  • John B. Whitfield,

    Affiliation: Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    X
  • Genetics of Iron Status Consortium,
  • Peter P. Pramstaller,

    Affiliations: Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom, Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy, Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany

    X
  • Andrew A. Hicks,

    Affiliation: Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • John R. Thompson,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

    X
  • Cosetta Minelli mail

    irene.pichler@eurac.edu (IP); cosetta.minelli@imperial.ac.uk (CM)

    Affiliation: Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: June 04, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001462

About the Authors

Irene Pichler, Fabiola Del Greco M., Martin Gögele, Peter P. Pramstaller, Andrew A. Hicks, Cosetta Minelli
Respiratory Epidemiology and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
Christina M. Lill, Lars Bertram
Neuropsychiatric Genetics Group, Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
Christina M. Lill
Department of Neurology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany
Chuong B. Do, Nicholas Eriksson
23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, California, United States of America
Tatiana Foroud
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America
Richard H. Myers
Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Michael Nalls, Margaux F. Keller
Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Margaux F. Keller
Department of Biological Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Beben Benyamin, John B. Whitfield
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Beben Benyamin
Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia
Peter P. Pramstaller
Department of Neurology, General Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy
Peter P. Pramstaller
Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
John R. Thompson
Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

CM is a member of the Editorial Board of PLOS Medicine. NE and CBD are or have been employed by 23andMe and own stock options in the company. TF serves on Research Competitiveness Program for the American Association for the Advancement of Science; Study Sections, Review Panels, Board of Scientific Counselors for NIH; Scientific Advisory Board for University of Colorado; and the NIA's Long Life Family Study Observational Study Monitoring Board. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

  • ¶ Membership of the PD GWAS Consortium, the International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium, the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, and the Genetics of Iron Status Consortium is provided in the Acknowledgments
  • Conceived and designed the experiments: CM IP FDM. Analyzed the data: FDM CM MG. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: IP CM. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: CM AAH JT. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: IP FDM MG CML LB CBD NE TF RHM MN MFK BB JBW PPP AAH JT CM. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: IP FDM MG CML LB CBD NE TF RHM MN MFK BB JBW PPP AAH JT CM. Contributed data: CML LB CBD NE TF RHM MN MFK BB JBW PPP.