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Essay

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Research Misconduct in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

  • Joseph Ana,

    Affiliations: Calabar Women and Children Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria

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  • Tracey Koehlmoos,

    Affiliation: ICDDR,B, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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  • Richard Smith mail,

    Richardswsmith@yahoo.co.uk

    Affiliation: UnitedHealth Chronic Disease Initiative, London, United Kingdom

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  • Lijing L. Yan

    Affiliation: The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China

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  • Published: March 26, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001315

About the Authors

Joseph Ana
Calabar Women and Children Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria
Joseph Ana
Faculty of Health Sciences, Cross River University of Technology, Calabar, Nigeria
Tracey Koehlmoos
ICDDR,B, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Richard Smith
UnitedHealth Chronic Disease Initiative, London, United Kingdom
Lijing L. Yan
The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China

Corresponding Author

Email: Richardswsmith@yahoo.co.uk

Competing Interests

RS was, as described in the article, much involved in the Singh case. He is also a trustee of the UK Research Integrity Office. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: RS. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: RS TK JA LLY. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: RS TK JA LLY. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: RS TK JA LLY. Discussed the subject, designed the survey, and sent it to colleagues, and gathered material from their own countries: RS TK JA LLY.