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Research Article

Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Increased Risk of Female-to-Male HIV-1 Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Analysis among African Couples

  • Craig R. Cohen mail,

    ccohen@globalhealth.ucsf.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America, Women's Health & Empowerment Center of Expertise, University of California Global Health Institute, San Francisco, United States of America

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  • Jairam R. Lingappa,

    Affiliations: Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics University of Washington, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Jared M. Baeten,

    Affiliations: Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Musa O. Ngayo,

    Affiliation: Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Carol A. Spiegel,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America

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  • Ting Hong,

    Affiliation: Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Deborah Donnell,

    Affiliation: Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Connie Celum,

    Affiliations: Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Saidi Kapiga,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Sinead Delany,

    Affiliation: Wits Reproductive Health & HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Elizabeth A. Bukusi

    Affiliations: Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics University of Washington, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America, Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Published: June 26, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001251

About the Authors

Craig R. Cohen, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America
Craig R. Cohen
Women's Health & Empowerment Center of Expertise, University of California Global Health Institute, San Francisco, United States of America
Jairam R. Lingappa, Jared M. Baeten, Ting Hong, Connie Celum, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Jairam R. Lingappa, Jared M. Baeten, Connie Celum
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Jairam R. Lingappa, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
Department of Pediatrics University of Washington, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Jared M. Baeten, Connie Celum
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Musa O. Ngayo, Elizabeth A. Bukusi
Center for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Carol A. Spiegel
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States of America
Deborah Donnell
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Saidi Kapiga
Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Sinead Delany
Wits Reproductive Health & HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Corresponding Author

Email: ccohen@globalhealth.ucsf.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CRC JRL CAS MON EAB. Performed the experiments: CRC, JRL, CAS, MON, EAB. Analyzed the data: CRC JRL JMB TH DD. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: CRC TH JMB JRL. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: CRC JRL JMB TH DD CC EAB CAS SK SD. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: CRC JRL JMB TH DD CC EAB CAS SK SD MON. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: CRC JRL JMB TH DD CC EAB CAS SK SD MON.