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Research Article

Complexity in Non-Pharmacological Caregiving Activities at the End of Life: An International Qualitative Study

  • Olav Lindqvist mail,

    olav.lindqvist@ki.se

    Affiliations: Research and Development Unit in Palliative Care, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Carol Tishelman,

    Affiliations: Research and Development Unit in Palliative Care, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Carina Lundh Hagelin,

    Affiliations: Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Jean B. Clark,

    Affiliation: Education and Research Unit, Arohanui Hospice, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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  • Maria L. Daud,

    Affiliation: Pallium Latinoamérica, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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  • Andrew Dickman,

    Affiliation: Marie Curie Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Franzisca Domeisen Benedetti,

    Affiliation: Center for Palliative Care, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland

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  • Maren Galushko,

    Affiliation: Department of Palliative Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany

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  • Urska Lunder,

    Affiliation: University Clinic for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, Golnik, Slovenia

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  • Gunilla Lundquist,

    Affiliations: Department of Radiation Sciences—Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Palliative Team Västerbergslagen, County Council of Dalarna, Ludvika, Sweden

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  • Guido Miccinesi,

    Affiliation: Clinical and Descriptive Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Istituto per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Florence, Italy

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  • Sylvia B. Sauter,

    Affiliation: Research and Development Unit in Palliative Care, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Carl Johan Fürst,

    Affiliations: Research and Development Unit in Palliative Care, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Birgit H. Rasmussen,

    Affiliation: Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • on behalf of OPCARE9
  • Published: February 14, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001173

About the Authors

Olav Lindqvist, Carol Tishelman, Sylvia B. Sauter, Carl Johan Fürst
Research and Development Unit in Palliative Care, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden
Olav Lindqvist, Carol Tishelman, Carina Lundh Hagelin
Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Medical Management Centre, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Olav Lindqvist, Birgit H. Rasmussen
Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Carol Tishelman
Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Carina Lundh Hagelin
Sophiahemmet University College, Stockholm, Sweden
Jean B. Clark
Education and Research Unit, Arohanui Hospice, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Maria L. Daud
Pallium Latinoamérica, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Andrew Dickman
Marie Curie Palliative Care Institute Liverpool, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Franzisca Domeisen Benedetti
Center for Palliative Care, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland
Maren Galushko
Department of Palliative Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany
Urska Lunder
University Clinic for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik, Golnik, Slovenia
Gunilla Lundquist
Department of Radiation Sciences—Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Gunilla Lundquist
Palliative Team Västerbergslagen, County Council of Dalarna, Ludvika, Sweden
Guido Miccinesi
Clinical and Descriptive Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Prevention and Research Institute, Istituto per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Florence, Italy
Carl Johan Fürst
Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Corresponding Author

Email: olav.lindqvist@ki.se

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: OL CT GL SBS CJF BHR. Performed the experiments: OL JBC MLD AD FDB MG UL GM BHR. Analyzed the data: OL CT BHR. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: OL CT BHR. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: OL CT CLH JBC MLD AD FDB MG UL GL GM SBS CJF BHR. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: OL CT CLH JBC MLD AD FDB MG UL GL GM SBS CJF BHR. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: OL CT CLH JBC MLD AD FDB MG UL GL GM SBS CJF BHR.