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Monitoring the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines into West Africa: Design and Implementation of a Population-Based Surveillance System

  • Grant A. Mackenzie equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Grant A. Mackenzie, Ian D. Plumb

    gmackenzie@mrc.gm

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Ian D. Plumb equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Grant A. Mackenzie, Ian D. Plumb

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Sana Sambou,

    Affiliation: Disease Control Programme, Department of State for Health, Government of The Gambia, The Quadrangle, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Debasish Saha,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Uchendu Uchendu,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Bolanle Akinsola,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Usman N. Ikumapayi,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Ignatius Baldeh,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Effua Usuf,

    Affiliations: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa, Disease Control Programme, Department of State for Health, Government of The Gambia, The Quadrangle, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Kebba Touray,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Momodou Jasseh,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Stephen R. C. Howie,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Andre Wattiaux,

    Affiliation: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa

    X
  • Ellen Lee,

    Affiliation: PneumoADIP, International Vaccine Access Centre, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Maria Deloria Knoll,

    Affiliation: PneumoADIP, International Vaccine Access Centre, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Orin S. Levine,

    Affiliation: PneumoADIP, International Vaccine Access Centre, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Brian M. Greenwood,

    Affiliation: Infectious & Tropical Diseases Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Richard A. Adegbola,

    Affiliations: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa, Global Health, Infectious Diseases Division, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Philip C. Hill

    Affiliations: MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa, Centre for International Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

    X
  • Published: January 17, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001161

About the Authors

Grant A. Mackenzie, Ian D. Plumb, Debasish Saha, Uchendu Uchendu, Bolanle Akinsola, Usman N. Ikumapayi, Ignatius Baldeh, Effua Usuf, Kebba Touray, Momodou Jasseh, Stephen R. C. Howie, Andre Wattiaux, Richard A. Adegbola, Philip C. Hill
MRC Unit, Fajara and Basse stations, The Gambia, West Africa
Sana Sambou, Effua Usuf
Disease Control Programme, Department of State for Health, Government of The Gambia, The Quadrangle, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa
Ellen Lee, Maria Deloria Knoll, Orin S. Levine
PneumoADIP, International Vaccine Access Centre, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Brian M. Greenwood
Infectious & Tropical Diseases Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Richard A. Adegbola
Global Health, Infectious Diseases Division, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Philip C. Hill
Centre for International Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Corresponding Author

Email: gmackenzie@mrc.gm

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GM IP SS MJ SH AW EL MK OL BG RA PH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: UU BA UI RA DS. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: PH GM IP. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: PH GM IP SS DS UU BA UI IB EU KT MJ SH AW EL MK OL BG RA PH. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: PH GM IP SS DS UU BA UI IB EU KT MJ SH AW EL MK OL BG RA PH. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: PH GM IP SS DS UU BA UI IB EU KT MJ SH AW EL MK OL BG RA PH.