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Research Article

Risk of Violent Crime in Individuals with Epilepsy and Traumatic Brain Injury: A 35-Year Swedish Population Study

  • Seena Fazel mail,

    seena.fazel@psych.ox.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Paul Lichtenstein,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Martin Grann,

    Affiliations: Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Norrköping, Sweden

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  • Niklas Långström

    Affiliations: Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Norrköping, Sweden

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  • Published: December 27, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001150

About the Authors

Seena Fazel
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
Seena Fazel, Martin Grann, Niklas Långström
Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Paul Lichtenstein, Martin Grann, Niklas Långström
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Martin Grann, Niklas Långström
Swedish Prison and Probation Service, Norrköping, Sweden

Corresponding Author

Email: seena.fazel@psych.ox.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SF PL MG NL. Performed the experiments: SF. Analyzed the data: SF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: n/a. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: SF. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: SF PL NL. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SF PL MG NL. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: SF PL MG NL. Secured funding, obtained register data, and supervised data extraction: PL NL.