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Perspective

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Shift Work as a Risk Factor for Future Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence, Mechanisms, Implications, and Future Research Directions

  • Mika Kivimäki mail,

    m.kivimaki@ucl.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • G. David Batty,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom, MRC Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

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  • Christer Hublin

    Affiliation: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Published: December 06, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001138

About the Authors

Mika Kivimäki, G. David Batty
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
G. David Batty
MRC Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Christer Hublin
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland

Corresponding Author

Email: m.kivimaki@ucl.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MK GDB CH. Analyzed the data: MK GDB CH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: MK. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: MK GDB CH. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MK GDB CH. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: MK GDB CH.