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Evidence-Based Guidelines for Mental, Neurological, and Substance Use Disorders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Summary of WHO Recommendations

  • Tarun Dua,

    Affiliation: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Corrado Barbui,

    Affiliation: WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy

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  • Nicolas Clark,

    Affiliation: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Alexandra Fleischmann,

    Affiliation: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Vladimir Poznyak,

    Affiliation: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Mark van Ommeren,

    Affiliation: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • M. Taghi Yasamy,

    Affiliation: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos,

    Affiliation: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain

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  • Gretchen L. Birbeck,

    Affiliation: International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; Epilepsy Care Team, Chikankata Hospital, Mazabuka, Zambia

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  • Colin Drummond,

    Affiliation: Department of Addiction, National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Melvyn Freeman,

    Affiliation: Cluster Manager, Non-communicable Diseases, National Department of Health, Pretoria, South Africa

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  • Panteleimon Giannakopoulos,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Geneva; Department of Psychiatry, Division of Old Age Psychiatry, Hospices-CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland

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  • Itzhak Levav,

    Affiliation: Mental Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel

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  • Isidore S. Obot,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria

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  • Olayinka Omigbodun,

    Affiliation: College of Medicine, University of Ibadan & University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

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  • Vikram Patel,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Mental Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom; Sangath, Goa, India

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  • Michael Phillips,

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Departments of Psychiatry and Global Health, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Martin Prince,

    Affiliation: King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Health Service and Population Research Department, London, United Kingdom

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  • Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar,

    Affiliation: Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

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  • Atif Rahman,

    Affiliation: University of Liverpool, Institute of Psychology, Health & Society; Child Mental Health Unit, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Josemir W. Sander,

    Affiliation: UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom, SEIN – Epilepsy Institute in the Netherlands Foundation, Heemstede, The Netherlands

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  • John B. Saunders,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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  • Chiara Servili,

    Affiliation: Child and Adolescent Health and Development, WHO Eritrea, Asmara, Eritrea

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  • Thara Rangaswamy,

    Affiliation: Schizophrenia Research Foundation (SCARF), Chennai, India

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  • Jürgen Unützer,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, University of Washington Medical Center; UW AIMS Center; IMPACT Implementation Program, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Peter Ventevogel,

    Affiliation: HealthNet TPO, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Lakshmi Vijayakumar,

    Affiliation: SNEHA and Voluntary Health Services, Chennai, India

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  • Graham Thornicroft,

    Affiliation: Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Shekhar Saxena mail

    saxenas@who.int

    Affiliation: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland

    GT and SS are joint last authors.

    X
  • Published: November 15, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001122

About the Authors

Tarun Dua, Nicolas Clark, Alexandra Fleischmann, Vladimir Poznyak, Mark van Ommeren, M. Taghi Yasamy, Shekhar Saxena
Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland
Corrado Barbui
WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Section of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain
Gretchen L. Birbeck
International Neurologic and Psychiatric Epidemiology Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States of America; Epilepsy Care Team, Chikankata Hospital, Mazabuka, Zambia
Colin Drummond
Department of Addiction, National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Melvyn Freeman
Cluster Manager, Non-communicable Diseases, National Department of Health, Pretoria, South Africa
Panteleimon Giannakopoulos
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva, Geneva; Department of Psychiatry, Division of Old Age Psychiatry, Hospices-CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland
Itzhak Levav
Mental Health Services, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel
Isidore S. Obot
Department of Psychology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Olayinka Omigbodun
College of Medicine, University of Ibadan & University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Vikram Patel
Centre for Global Mental Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom; Sangath, Goa, India
Michael Phillips
Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Departments of Psychiatry and Global Health, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Martin Prince
King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Health Service and Population Research Department, London, United Kingdom
Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Atif Rahman
University of Liverpool, Institute of Psychology, Health & Society; Child Mental Health Unit, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Josemir W. Sander
UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom, SEIN – Epilepsy Institute in the Netherlands Foundation, Heemstede, The Netherlands
John B. Saunders
Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Chiara Servili
Child and Adolescent Health and Development, WHO Eritrea, Asmara, Eritrea
Thara Rangaswamy
Schizophrenia Research Foundation (SCARF), Chennai, India
Jürgen Unützer
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, University of Washington Medical Center; UW AIMS Center; IMPACT Implementation Program, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Peter Ventevogel
HealthNet TPO, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Lakshmi Vijayakumar
SNEHA and Voluntary Health Services, Chennai, India
Graham Thornicroft
Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: saxenas@who.int

Competing Interests

JLA was paid in 2007 by Lundbeck S.A. for consultancy preparation of the research protocol for a study on the diagnostic delay in first episode of depression in contact with health care centers in Spain and was paid in 2009 by Sanofi Aventis S.A. for expert testimony on the side effects of veralapride. OO is the current President of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) (http://www.iacapap.org/). JWS served on scientific advisory boards for GlaxoSmithKline (2010), Eisai (2009), and UCB (2009); received funding for travel from UCB (2008) and Janssen (2009); serves on the editorial boards of Lancet Neurology, Epilepsia and Epileptic Disorders; served on the speaker's bureaus of UCB (2009) and GlaxoSmithKline (2009); and has received research support from UCB (grant finished 2010), Eisai (grant finished 2008), the NIH (ongoing grant), the EU FP7 (ongoing grant), the Wellcome Trust (grant finished 2009), WHO (ongoing grant), the National Epilepsy Funds of the Netherlands (ongoing grant), and the Epilepsy Society (ongoing grant). His current position is endowed by the National Society for Epilepsy (UK). SS confirms that the competing interests of JWS were declared, reviewed, and deemed acceptable by the mhGAP Guideline Development Group. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: TD CB NC AF VP MvO MTY GT SS. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: TD CB NC AF VP MvO MTY GT SS JLA GLB CD MF PG IL ISO OO VP MiP MaP ARM AR JWS JBS CS TR JU PV LV. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: TD CB NC AF VP MvO MTY GT SS JLA GLB CD MF PG IL ISO OO VP MiP MaP ARM AR JWS JBS CS TR JU PV LV. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: TD CB NC AF VP MvO MTY GT SS JLA GLB CD MF PG IL ISO OO VP MiP MaP ARM AR JWS JBS CS TR JU PV LV.