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Research Article

Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 218,166 Adults and 19,268 Children

  • Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Lu Qi mail,

    luqi@hsph.harvard.edu (LQ); paul.franks@med.lu.se (PWF); ruth.loos@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk (RJFL)

    Affiliation: Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Soren Brage,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Stephen J. Sharp,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Emily Sonestedt,

    Affiliation: Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden

    X
  • Ellen Demerath,

    Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

    X
  • Tariq Ahmad,

    Affiliation: Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Samia Mora,

    Affiliation: Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Marika Kaakinen,

    Affiliation: Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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  • Camilla Helene Sandholt,

    Affiliation: Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark

    X
  • Christina Holzapfel,

    Affiliations: Unit for Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, Else Kroener-Fresenius-Centre for Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, University Hospital “Klinikum rechts der Isar,” Munich, Germany

    X
  • Christine S. Autenrieth,

    Affiliation: Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Elina Hyppönen,

    Affiliation: Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

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  • Stéphane Cauchi,

    Affiliation: CNRS-UMR-8090, Department of Genomics and Molecular Physiology of Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Biology of Lille, Lille, France

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  • Meian He,

    Affiliation: Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Zoltan Kutalik,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

    X
  • Meena Kumari,

    Affiliation: Genetic Epidemiology Group, Department of Epidemiology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Alena Stančáková,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

    X
  • Karina Meidtner,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany

    X
  • Beverley Balkau,

    Affiliations: INSERM, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Epidemiology of diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease over the lifecourse and determinants of early nutrition, Villejuif, France, University Paris Sud 11, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France

    X
  • Jonathan T. Tan,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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  • Massimo Mangino,

    Affiliation: King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Nicholas J. Timpson,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Yiqing Song,

    Affiliation: Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • M. Carola Zillikens,

    Affiliations: Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Netherlands Genomics Initiative–sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging, Leiden, The Netherlands

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  • Kathleen A. Jablonski,

    Affiliation: The Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Melissa E. Garcia,

    Affiliation: National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Stefan Johansson,

    Affiliations: Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

    X
  • Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Ying Wu,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk,

    Affiliation: Molecular Genetics Section, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Centre Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

    X
  • N. Charlotte Onland-Moret,

    Affiliations: Complex Genetics Section, Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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  • Esther Zimmermann,

    Affiliations: Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, Institute of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Natalia V. Rivera,

    Affiliation: Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Toshiko Tanaka,

    Affiliations: Medstar Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Longitudinal Study Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Heather M. Stringham,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

    X
  • Günther Silbernagel,

    Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Nephrology, Vascular Disease, and Clinical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

    X
  • Stavroula Kanoni,

    Affiliation: Department of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    X
  • Mary F. Feitosa,

    Affiliation: Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

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  • Soren Snitker,

    Affiliation: University of Maryland School of Medicine, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Jonatan R. Ruiz,

    Affiliations: Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden, Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain

    X
  • Jeffery Metter,

    Affiliation: Longitudinal Study Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Maria Teresa Martinez Larrad,

    Affiliation: Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain

    X
  • Mustafa Atalay,

    Affiliation: Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Maarit Hakanen,

    Affiliation: The Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

    X
  • Najaf Amin,

    Affiliation: Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Christine Cavalcanti-Proença,

    Affiliation: CNRS-UMR-8090, Department of Genomics and Molecular Physiology of Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Biology of Lille, Lille, France

    X
  • Anders Grøntved,

    Affiliation: Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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  • Göran Hallmans,

    Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine Section for Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • John-Olov Jansson,

    Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

    X
  • Johanna Kuusisto,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Mika Kähönen,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

    X
  • Pamela L. Lutsey,

    Affiliation: Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • John J. Nolan,

    Affiliation: Steno Diabetes Centre, Gentofte, Denmark

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  • Luigi Palla,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Oluf Pedersen,

    Affiliations: Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark, Institute of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark, Marie Krogh Center for Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Louis Pérusse,

    Affiliation: Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada

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  • Frida Renström,

    Affiliations: Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden, Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden

    X
  • Robert A. Scott,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Dmitry Shungin,

    Affiliations: Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden, Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden, Department of Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

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  • Ulla Sovio,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Tuija H. Tammelin,

    Affiliations: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland, LIKES Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland

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  • Tapani Rönnemaa,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

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  • Timo A. Lakka,

    Affiliation: Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Matti Uusitupa,

    Affiliations: Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland, Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Manuel Serrano Rios,

    Affiliation: Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain

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  • Luigi Ferrucci,

    Affiliation: Longitudinal Study Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Claude Bouchard,

    Affiliation: Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America

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  • Aline Meirhaeghe,

    Affiliation: INSERM, U744, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Université Lille Nord de France, Université Lille 2, Lille, France

    X
  • Mao Fu,

    Affiliation: Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Mark Walker,

    Affiliation: Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom

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  • Ingrid B. Borecki,

    Affiliation: Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America

    X
  • George V. Dedoussis,

    Affiliation: Department of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    X
  • Andreas Fritsche,

    Affiliation: Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Nephrology, Vascular Disease, and Clinical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

    X
  • Claes Ohlsson,

    Affiliation: Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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  • Michael Boehnke,

    Affiliation: Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Stefania Bandinelli,

    Affiliation: Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze, Florence, Italy

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  • Cornelia M. van Duijn,

    Affiliations: Netherlands Genomics Initiative–sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging, Leiden, The Netherlands, Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Netherlands Genomics Initiative, Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands

    X
  • Shah Ebrahim,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Debbie A. Lawlor,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Vilmundur Gudnason,

    Affiliations: Icelandic Heart Association, Heart Preventive Clinic and Research Institute, Kopavogur, Iceland, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • Tamara B. Harris,

    Affiliation: Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Thorkild I. A. Sørensen,

    Affiliation: Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Karen L. Mohlke,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Albert Hofman,

    Affiliations: Netherlands Genomics Initiative–sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging, Leiden, The Netherlands, Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • André G. Uitterlinden,

    Affiliations: Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Netherlands Genomics Initiative–sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging, Leiden, The Netherlands, Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Jaakko Tuomilehto,

    Affiliations: Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland, Department of Clinical and Preventive Medicine, Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria

    X
  • Terho Lehtimäki,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

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  • Olli Raitakari,

    Affiliations: The Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland, Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

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  • Bo Isomaa,

    Affiliations: Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Social Services and Health Care, Jakobstad, Finland

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  • Pål R. Njølstad,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway, Department of Pediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

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  • Jose C. Florez,

    Affiliations: Center for Human Genetic Research and Diabetes Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Simin Liu,

    Affiliation: Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, School of Public Health and David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Andy Ness,

    Affiliation: School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Timothy D. Spector,

    Affiliation: King’s College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • E. Shyong Tai,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore

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  • Philippe Froguel,

    Affiliations: CNRS-UMR-8090, Department of Genomics and Molecular Physiology of Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Biology of Lille, Lille, France, Centre and Department of Genomic Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Heiner Boeing,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany

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  • Markku Laakso,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland

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  • Michael Marmot,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Sven Bergmann,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

    X
  • Chris Power,

    Affiliation: Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Kay-Tee Khaw,

    Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Daniel Chasman,

    Affiliation: Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Paul Ridker,

    Affiliation: Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Torben Hansen,

    Affiliations: Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark, Marie Krogh Center for Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

    X
  • Keri L. Monda,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Thomas Illig,

    Affiliation: Unit for Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

    X
  • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin,

    Affiliations: Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Life Course and Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

    X
  • Nicholas J. Wareham,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Frank B. Hu,

    Affiliation: Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Leif C. Groop,

    Affiliation: Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden

    X
  • Marju Orho-Melander,

    Affiliation: Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden

    X
  • Ulf Ekelund,

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Paul W. Franks mail,

    luqi@hsph.harvard.edu (LQ); paul.franks@med.lu.se (PWF); ruth.loos@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk (RJFL)

    Affiliations: Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden, Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden

    X
  • Ruth J. F. Loos mail

    luqi@hsph.harvard.edu (LQ); paul.franks@med.lu.se (PWF); ruth.loos@mrc-epid.cam.ac.uk (RJFL)

    Affiliation: Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Published: November 01, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001116

About the Authors

Tuomas O. Kilpeläinen, Soren Brage, Stephen J. Sharp, Luigi Palla, Robert A. Scott, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ulf Ekelund, Ruth J. F. Loos
Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Lu Qi, Frida Renström, Paul W. Franks
Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Emily Sonestedt, Frida Renström, Dmitry Shungin, Leif C. Groop, Marju Orho-Melander, Paul W. Franks
Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Skane University Hospital, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
Ellen Demerath, Pamela L. Lutsey
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
Tariq Ahmad
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Samia Mora, Daniel Chasman, Paul Ridker
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Marika Kaakinen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Camilla Helene Sandholt, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen
Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark
Christina Holzapfel, Thomas Illig
Unit for Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Christina Holzapfel
Else Kroener-Fresenius-Centre for Nutritional Medicine, Technische Universität München, University Hospital “Klinikum rechts der Isar,” Munich, Germany
Christine S. Autenrieth
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Elina Hyppönen, Chris Power
Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, University College London Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom
Stéphane Cauchi, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Philippe Froguel
CNRS-UMR-8090, Department of Genomics and Molecular Physiology of Metabolic Diseases, Institute of Biology of Lille, Lille, France
Meian He, Frank B. Hu
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Zoltan Kutalik, Sven Bergmann
Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Meena Kumari
Genetic Epidemiology Group, Department of Epidemiology, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Alena Stančáková, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso
Department of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
Karina Meidtner, Heiner Boeing
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany
Beverley Balkau
INSERM, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Epidemiology of diabetes, obesity and chronic kidney disease over the lifecourse and determinants of early nutrition, Villejuif, France
Beverley Balkau
University Paris Sud 11, UMRS 1018, Villejuif, France
Jonathan T. Tan
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Massimo Mangino, Timothy D. Spector
King’s College London, London, United Kingdom
Nicholas J. Timpson, Debbie A. Lawlor
Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Yiqing Song
Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
M. Carola Zillikens, André G. Uitterlinden
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
M. Carola Zillikens, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Albert Hofman, André G. Uitterlinden
Netherlands Genomics Initiative–sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging, Leiden, The Netherlands
Kathleen A. Jablonski
The Biostatistics Center, George Washington University, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America
Melissa E. Garcia
National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Stefan Johansson
Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Stefan Johansson, Pål R. Njølstad
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham, Heather M. Stringham, Michael Boehnke
Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Ying Wu, Karen L. Mohlke
Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Jana V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
Molecular Genetics Section, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Centre Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
N. Charlotte Onland-Moret
Complex Genetics Section, Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
N. Charlotte Onland-Moret
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Esther Zimmermann, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
Esther Zimmermann, Oluf Pedersen
Institute of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Natalia V. Rivera, Najaf Amin, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Albert Hofman, André G. Uitterlinden
Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Toshiko Tanaka
Medstar Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Toshiko Tanaka, Jeffery Metter, Luigi Ferrucci
Longitudinal Study Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Günther Silbernagel, Andreas Fritsche
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology, Nephrology, Vascular Disease, and Clinical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
Stavroula Kanoni, George V. Dedoussis
Department of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Mary F. Feitosa, Ingrid B. Borecki
Division of Statistical Genomics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
Soren Snitker
University of Maryland School of Medicine, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
Jonatan R. Ruiz
Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition at NOVUM, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
Jonatan R. Ruiz
Department of Physical Education and Sport, School of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
Maria Teresa Martinez Larrad, Manuel Serrano Rios
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain
Mustafa Atalay, Timo A. Lakka
Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland
Maarit Hakanen, Olli Raitakari
The Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Anders Grøntved
Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Göran Hallmans
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine Section for Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
John-Olov Jansson
Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Mika Kähönen
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
John J. Nolan
Steno Diabetes Centre, Gentofte, Denmark
Oluf Pedersen
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen
Marie Krogh Center for Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Louis Pérusse
Division of Kinesiology, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada
Frida Renström, Dmitry Shungin, Paul W. Franks
Genetic Epidemiology and Clinical Research Group, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
Dmitry Shungin
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Ulla Sovio
Department of Medical Statistics, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Tuija H. Tammelin
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland
Tuija H. Tammelin
LIKES Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland
Tapani Rönnemaa
Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Matti Uusitupa
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio Campus, Kuopio, Finland
Matti Uusitupa
Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
Claude Bouchard
Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America
Aline Meirhaeghe
INSERM, U744, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Université Lille Nord de France, Université Lille 2, Lille, France
Mao Fu
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Mark Walker
Institute of Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom
Claes Ohlsson
Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Stefania Bandinelli
Geriatric Rehabilitation Unit, Azienda Sanitaria Firenze, Florence, Italy
Cornelia M. van Duijn
Netherlands Genomics Initiative, Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands
Shah Ebrahim
Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Vilmundur Gudnason
Icelandic Heart Association, Heart Preventive Clinic and Research Institute, Kopavogur, Iceland
Vilmundur Gudnason
University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Tamara B. Harris
Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Jaakko Tuomilehto
South Ostrobothnia Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Department of Clinical and Preventive Medicine, Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria
Terho Lehtimäki
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Olli Raitakari
Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
Bo Isomaa
Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
Bo Isomaa
Department of Social Services and Health Care, Jakobstad, Finland
Pål R. Njølstad
Department of Pediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
Jose C. Florez
Center for Human Genetic Research and Diabetes Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Jose C. Florez
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Jose C. Florez
Program for Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Simin Liu
Center for Metabolic Disease Prevention, School of Public Health and David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Andy Ness
School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
E. Shyong Tai
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Philippe Froguel
Centre and Department of Genomic Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Michael Marmot
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Kay-Tee Khaw
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
Torben Hansen
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Keri L. Monda
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Life Course and Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

JJN has, since January 2011, been employed at Steno Diabetes Centre, a legally independent clinical and research body, which is wholly owned by Novo Nordisk. In relation to his contribution to this manuscript (through the RISC study), all of this work pre-dates his appointment to his current position. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TOK LQ SBr SJS LPal RAS UE PWF RJFL. Analyzed the data: TOK ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKah AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: TOK LQ SBr SJS UE PWF RJFL. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: TOK LQ SBr SJS ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKu AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKah PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: TOK LQ SBr SJS ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKu AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKah PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: TOK LQ SBr SJS ES ED TA SM MKaa CHS CH CSA EH SC MH ZK MKu AS KM BB JTT MM NJT YS MCZ KAJ MEG SJ JLBG YW JVVVO NCOM EZ NVR TT HMS GS SK MFF SS JRR JM MTML MA MH NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKah PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL. Management and coordination of contributing cohorts: NA CCP AG GH JOJ JK MKu PLL JJN LPal OP LPer FR RAS DS US THT TR TAL MU MSR LF CB AM MF MW IBB GVD AF CO MB SBa CMVD SE DAL VG TBH TIAS KLMoh AH AGU JT TL OR BI PRN JCF SL AN TDS EST PF HB ML MM SBe CP KTK DC PR TH KLMon TI MRJ NJW FBH LCG MOM UE PWF RJFL.