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Research Article

The Effect of Chromosome 9p21 Variants on Cardiovascular Disease May Be Modified by Dietary Intake: Evidence from a Case/Control and a Prospective Study

  • Ron Do,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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  • Changchun Xie,

    Affiliations: Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Departments of Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

    X
  • Xiaohe Zhang,

    Affiliation: Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

    X
  • Satu Männistö,

    Affiliation: Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Kennet Harald,

    Affiliation: Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • Shofiqul Islam,

    Affiliations: Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Departments of Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

    X
  • Swneke D. Bailey,

    Affiliation: Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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  • Sumathy Rangarajan,

    Affiliation: Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Matthew J. McQueen,

    Affiliation: Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Rafael Diaz,

    Affiliation: Estudios Cardiologicos Latinoamerica, Rosario, Argentina

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  • Liu Lisheng,

    Affiliation: Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Hypertension League Institute, Beijing, China

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  • Xingyu Wang,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Human Genetics, Beijing Hypertension League Institute, Beijing, China

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  • Kaisa Silander,

    Affiliations: Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, Human Genomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Leena Peltonen †,

    † Deceased.

    Affiliations: Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland, Human Genomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Salim Yusuf,

    Affiliation: Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Veikko Salomaa,

    Affiliation: Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland

    X
  • James C. Engert mail,

    jamie.engert@mcgill.ca (JCE); anands@mcmaster.ca (SSA)

    Affiliations: Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada, The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

    X
  • Sonia S. Anand mail,

    jamie.engert@mcgill.ca (JCE); anands@mcmaster.ca (SSA)

    Affiliations: Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Departments of Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

    X
  • on behalf of the INTERHEART investigators
  • Published: October 11, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001106

About the Authors

Ron Do, Swneke D. Bailey, James C. Engert
Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
Changchun Xie, Xiaohe Zhang, Shofiqul Islam, Sumathy Rangarajan, Matthew J. McQueen, Salim Yusuf, Sonia S. Anand
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Changchun Xie, Shofiqul Islam, Sonia S. Anand
Departments of Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Satu Männistö, Kennet Harald, Kaisa Silander, Leena Peltonen, Veikko Salomaa
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
Rafael Diaz
Estudios Cardiologicos Latinoamerica, Rosario, Argentina
Liu Lisheng
Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Hypertension League Institute, Beijing, China
Xingyu Wang
Laboratory of Human Genetics, Beijing Hypertension League Institute, Beijing, China
Kaisa Silander, Leena Peltonen
Human Genomics Unit, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
James C. Engert
Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada
James C. Engert
The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

  • Conceived and designed the experiments: RDo SSA JCE VS. Performed the experiments: RDo. Analyzed the data: RDo CX XZ SM KH KS SI SDB VS SSA JCE. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SR MJM LP VS RDiaz LL XW SY. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: RDo. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: RDo SSA JCE VS SY. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: RDo CX XZ SM KH SI SDB SR MJM RDiaz LL XW KS LP SSA JCE VS SY. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: RDo CX XZ SM KH SI SDB SR MJM RDiaz LL XW KS LP SSA JCE VS SY.
  • † Deceased.