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Research Article

Living Alone and Alcohol-Related Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study from Finland

  • Kimmo Herttua mail,

    kimmo.herttua@helsinki.fi

    Affiliations: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Pekka Martikainen,

    Affiliation: Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Jussi Vahtera,

    Affiliations: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

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  • Mika Kivimäki

    Affiliations: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom, Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Published: September 20, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001094

About the Authors

Kimmo Herttua, Jussi Vahtera, Mika Kivimäki
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland
Kimmo Herttua, Pekka Martikainen
Population Research Unit, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Jussi Vahtera
Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
Mika Kivimäki
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Mika Kivimäki
Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Corresponding Author

Email: kimmo.herttua@helsinki.fi

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: KH PM JV MK. Analyzed the data: KH. Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: KH. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: KH PM JV MK. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: KH PM JV MK. Agree with manuscript results and conclusions: KH PM JV MK. Formulated the hypothesis: KH MK.