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Research Article

LED Fluorescence Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Evaluation

  • Luis Eduardo Cuevas mail,

    cuevasl@who.int

    Affiliations: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom, United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva Switzerland

    X
  • Najla Al-Sonboli,

    Affiliation: Medical Faculty, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen

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  • Lovett Lawson,

    Affiliation: Zankli Medical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Mohammed Ahmed Yassin,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Isabel Arbide,

    Affiliation: Bushullo Major Health Centre, Awassa, Ethiopia

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  • Nasher Al-Aghbari,

    Affiliation: Medical Faculty, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen

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  • Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand,

    Affiliation: Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal

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  • Amin Al-Absi,

    Affiliation: National Tuberculosis Institute, Sana'a, Yemen

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  • Emmanuel Nnamdi Emenyonu,

    Affiliation: Zankli Medical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Yared Merid,

    Affiliation: Southern Region Health Bureau, Awassa, Ethiopia

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  • Mosis Ifenyi Okobi,

    Affiliation: Wuse General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Juliana Olubunmi Onuoha,

    Affiliation: Zankli Medical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria

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  • Melkamsew Aschalew,

    Affiliation: Southern Region Health Bureau, Awassa, Ethiopia

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  • Abraham Aseffa,

    Affiliation: Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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  • Greg Harper,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Rachel Mary Anderson de Cuevas,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Sally Jane Theobald,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Carl-Michael Nathanson,

    Affiliation: United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva Switzerland

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  • Jean Joly,

    Affiliation: United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva Switzerland

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  • Brian Faragher,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Stephen Bertel Squire,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew Ramsay

    Affiliation: United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva Switzerland

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  • Published: July 12, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001057

About the Authors

Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Mohammed Ahmed Yassin, Greg Harper, Rachel Mary Anderson de Cuevas, Sally Jane Theobald, Brian Faragher, Stephen Bertel Squire
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Carl-Michael Nathanson, Jean Joly, Andrew Ramsay
United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva Switzerland
Najla Al-Sonboli, Nasher Al-Aghbari
Medical Faculty, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen
Lovett Lawson, Emmanuel Nnamdi Emenyonu, Juliana Olubunmi Onuoha
Zankli Medical Centre, Abuja, Nigeria
Isabel Arbide
Bushullo Major Health Centre, Awassa, Ethiopia
Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand
Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal
Amin Al-Absi
National Tuberculosis Institute, Sana'a, Yemen
Yared Merid, Melkamsew Aschalew
Southern Region Health Bureau, Awassa, Ethiopia
Mosis Ifenyi Okobi
Wuse General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
Abraham Aseffa
Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author

Email: cuevasl@who.int

Competing Interests

Andrew Ramsay is employed by WHO/TDR, the institution administering the grants from USAID and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that funded this work. The other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: LEC NA-S LL MAY IA NA JBS ANA ENE YM MIO JOB MA AA GH RMA ST C-MN JJ BF SBS AR. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: LEC NA-S LL MAY IA NA JBS ANA ENE YM MIO JOB MA AA GH RMA ST C-MN JJ BF SBS AR. Enrolled patients: NA-S LL IA NA JBS ANA ENE MIO JOB. Conceived and designed the experiments: LEC MAY AR BF. Performed the experiments: NA-S LL IA NA JBS NAA ENE YM MIO JOB MA AA GH. Analyzed the data: LEC MAY AR BF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GH C-MN JJ. Wrote the paper: LEC MAY AR SBS RMA ST BF. Acted as field director: NA-S LL IA NAA JBS. Obtained national ethical approval: NA-S LL IA NAA JBS. Facilitated insertion of the study into the National Control Programme: AA MA LL JBS.