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Research Article

Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes about the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Systematic Review

  • Kirsten E. Austad,

    Affiliations: Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Jerry Avorn,

    Affiliation: Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Aaron S. Kesselheim mail

    akesselheim@partners.org

    Affiliations: Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Published: May 24, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001037

About the Authors

Kirsten E. Austad, Jerry Avorn, Aaron S. Kesselheim
Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Kirsten E. Austad, Aaron S. Kesselheim
Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: akesselheim@partners.org

Competing Interests

KEA reports employment by the USMLE preparation company USMLERx to write content question for their Step 1 question bank and is a 3rd year medical student at Harvard Medical School and a lab fellow at the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University and a member of the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: KEA JA ASK. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: KEA JA ASK. Wrote the first draft of the paper: KEA ASK. Contributed to the writing of the paper: KEA JA ASK. KEA, JA, and ASK were involved in generation of study concept and design of methods; KEA and ASK performed the systematic review and data extraction; KEA, JA, and ASK were involved in analyzing the data and preparing the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript.