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Research Article

Meta-analyses of Adverse Effects Data Derived from Randomised Controlled Trials as Compared to Observational Studies: Methodological Overview

  • Su Golder mail,

    su.golder@york.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, United Kingdom

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  • Yoon K. Loke,

    Affiliation: School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

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  • Martin Bland

    Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom

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  • Published: May 03, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001026

About the Authors

Su Golder
Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, United Kingdom
Yoon K. Loke
School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
Martin Bland
Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: su.golder@york.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The Academic Editor, Jan P. Vandenbroucke, has disclosed that he has worked with authors SG and YKL on another project unrelated to the study reported in this paper. He also discloses an intellectual competing interest in that he has previously published the theoretical viewpoint that estimates of harms outcomes in observational studies may be as valid as results of randomized trials, and may be more generalizable. The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SG. Performed the study: SG YL. Analyzed the data: SG YL MB. Wrote the paper: SG YL MB. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: SG YL MB. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: SG YL MB. Wrote the first draft of the paper: SG.