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Essay

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Predicting Harms and Benefits in Translational Trials: Ethics, Evidence, and Uncertainty

  • Jonathan Kimmelman,

    Affiliation: Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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  • Alex John London mail

    ajlondon@andrew.cmu.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: March 08, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001010

About the Authors

Jonathan Kimmelman
Biomedical Ethics Unit, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Alex John London
Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: ajlondon@andrew.cmu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Wrote the manuscript: JK AJL. ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: JK AJL. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: JK AJL.