Advertisement
Research Article

A Multi-Country Non-Inferiority Cluster Randomized Trial of Frontloaded Smear Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  • Luis Eduardo Cuevas mail,

    lcuevas@liv.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom, United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland

    X
  • Mohammed Ahmed Yassin,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    X
  • Najla Al-Sonboli,

    Affiliation: Medical Faculty, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen

    X
  • Lovett Lawson,

    Affiliation: Zankli Medical Center, Abuja, Nigeria

    X
  • Isabel Arbide,

    Affiliation: Bushullo Major Health Centre, Awassa, Ethiopia

    X
  • Nasher Al-Aghbari,

    Affiliation: National Tuberculosis Institute, Sana'a, Yemen

    X
  • Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand,

    Affiliation: Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal

    X
  • Amin Al-Absi,

    Affiliation: National Tuberculosis Institute, Sana'a, Yemen

    X
  • Emmanuel Nnamdi Emenyonu,

    Affiliation: Zankli Medical Center, Abuja, Nigeria

    X
  • Yared Merid,

    Affiliation: Southern Region Health Bureau, Awassa, Ethiopia

    X
  • Mosis Ifenyi Okobi,

    Affiliation: Wuse General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

    X
  • Juliana Olubunmi Onuoha,

    Affiliation: Zankli Medical Center, Abuja, Nigeria

    X
  • Melkamsew Aschalew,

    Affiliation: Southern Region Health Bureau, Awassa, Ethiopia

    X
  • Abraham Aseffa,

    Affiliation: Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    X
  • Greg Harper,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    X
  • Rachel Mary Anderson de Cuevas,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    X
  • Kristin Kremer,

    Affiliation: Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

    X
  • Dick van Soolingen,

    Affiliation: Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

    X
  • Carl-Michael Nathanson,

    Affiliation: United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland

    X
  • Jean Joly,

    Affiliation: United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland

    X
  • Brian Faragher,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    X
  • Stephen Bertel Squire,

    Affiliation: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    X
  • Andrew Ramsay

    Affiliation: United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland

    X
  • Published: July 12, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000443

About the Authors

Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Mohammed Ahmed Yassin, Greg Harper, Rachel Mary Anderson de Cuevas, Brian Faragher, Stephen Bertel Squire
Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom
Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Carl-Michael Nathanson, Jean Joly, Andrew Ramsay
United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Programme/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland
Najla Al-Sonboli
Medical Faculty, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen
Lovett Lawson, Emmanuel Nnamdi Emenyonu, Juliana Olubunmi Onuoha
Zankli Medical Center, Abuja, Nigeria
Isabel Arbide
Bushullo Major Health Centre, Awassa, Ethiopia
Nasher Al-Aghbari, Amin Al-Absi
National Tuberculosis Institute, Sana'a, Yemen
Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand
Tribhuvan University Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal
Yared Merid, Melkamsew Aschalew
Southern Region Health Bureau, Awassa, Ethiopia
Mosis Ifenyi Okobi
Wuse General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
Abraham Aseffa
Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Kristin Kremer, Dick van Soolingen
Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Corresponding Author

Email: lcuevas@liv.ac.uk

Competing Interests

AR is employed by WHO/TDR the organization which administered the USAID and BMGF grants that funded the study. AR is Secretary of the New Diagnostics Working Group, Stop TB Partnership.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: LEC MAY NAS LL IA NAA JBS AAA ENE YM MIO JOO MA AA GH RMAdC KK DvS CMN JJ BF SBS AR. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: LEC MAY NAS LL IA NAA JBS AAA ENE YM MIO JOO MA AA GH RMAdC KK DvS CMN JJ BF SBS AR. Designed the experiments/the study: LEC MAY JJ BF AR. Analyzed the data: LEC MAY JBS RMAdC KK DvS BF AR. Collected data/did experiments for the study: NAS LL IA NAA JBS ENE YM MIO JOO MA AA GH RMAdC KK. Enrolled patients: NAS IA NAA JBS AAA ENE MIO JOO. Wrote the first draft of the paper: LEC MAY AR. Contributed to the writing of the paper: LEC MAY NAS LL NAA JBS AA RMAdC KK DvS CMN BF SBS AR. Principal Investigator: LEC. Initiators of the study: LEC MAY. Co-principal Investigator: MAY. Responsible for and supervised study in Yemen: NA-S. Responsible for and supervised study in Nigeria: LL. Responsible for and supervised the study in Bushulo Major Health Centre, Ethiopia: IA. Responsible for and supervised study in Yemen: NA-A. Responsible for and supervised study in Nepal: JBS. Responsible for the laboratory experiments conducted for the study in Nigeria: ENE. Contributed to laboratory testing, culture of specimens, and implementation of the EQA in Ethiopia: YM AA. Collection and examination of sputum samples in the laboratory: JOO. Contributed to EQA: GH. Contribution to overall management of study at international level: AR.