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Research Article

HIV-1 Drug Resistance Emergence among Breastfeeding Infants Born to HIV-Infected Mothers during a Single-Arm Trial of Triple-Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission: A Secondary Analysis

  • Clement Zeh mail,

    czeh@ke.cdc.gov.

    Affiliation: Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Kisumu, Kenya

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  • Paul J. Weidle,

    Affiliation: Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Lillian Nafisa,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

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  • Humphrey M. Lwamba,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

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  • Jully Okonji,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

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  • Emily Anyango,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

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  • Philip Bondo,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

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  • Rose Masaba,

    Affiliation: Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

    Current address: Family Health International, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Mary Glenn Fowler,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Department of Pathology, Baltimore, Maryland Onsite at Makerere University, Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda

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  • John N. Nkengasong,

    Affiliation: Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Center for Global Health, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Michael C. Thigpen,

    Affiliation: Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    Current address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Botswana (CDC-BOTUSA), HIV Prevention Research Unit, Gaborone, Botswana

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  • Timothy Thomas

    Affiliations: Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Kisumu, Kenya, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    Current address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Arctic Investigations Program, Anchorage, Alaska

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  • Published: March 29, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000430
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Clement Zeh, Timothy Thomas
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Kisumu, Kenya
Paul J. Weidle, Michael C. Thigpen, Timothy Thomas
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Lillian Nafisa, Humphrey M. Lwamba, Jully Okonji, Emily Anyango, Philip Bondo, Rose Masaba
Centre for Global Health Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
Mary Glenn Fowler
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, Department of Pathology, Baltimore, Maryland Onsite at Makerere University, Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda
John N. Nkengasong
Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Center for Global Health, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: czeh@ke.cdc.gov.

Competing Interests

The Academic Editor, Lynne Mofenson, has disclosed that she worked with authors MGF and MCT on other projects unrelated to the study reported in this paper. The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: CZ PJW LN HML JO EA PB RM MGF JNN MCT TT. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: CZ PJW LN HML JO EA PB RM MGF JNN MCT TT. Designed the experiments/the study: CZ PJW PB MGF JNN MCT TT. Analyzed the data: CZ PJW LN HML JO EA MCT. Collected data/did experiments for the study: CZ LN HML JO EA PB RM MCT TT. Enrolled patients: RM TT. Wrote the first draft of the paper: CZ PJW. Contributed to the writing of the paper: CZ LN HML JO PB MGF JNN MCT TT. Contributed to the review of the manuscript: EA. Contributed to the study design, responsible for data integrity, reviewed the paper: RM. Participated actively in the original design of the overall Kibs clinical trial including the plan to store samples and analyze for resistance in both mothers and babies; worked with the first author and other coauthors on multiple drafts leading to the current manuscript: MGF.