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Research Article

Intravaginal Practices, Bacterial Vaginosis, and HIV Infection in Women: Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis

  • Nicola Low mail,

    low@ispm.unibe.ch

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

    These authors are joint first authors on this work.

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  • Matthew F. Chersich ,

    Affiliations: Centre for Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

    These authors are joint first authors on this work.

    X
  • Kurt Schmidlin,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Matthias Egger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Suzanna C. Francis,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert,

    Affiliation: Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Richard J. Hayes,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Jared M. Baeten,

    Affiliation: Departments of Global Health, Medicine, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Joelle Brown,

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Sinead Delany-Moretlwe,

    Affiliation: Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Hillbrow, South Africa

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  • Rupert Kaul,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Nuala McGrath,

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom, Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Somkhele, South Africa

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  • Charles Morrison,

    Affiliation: Clinical Sciences Department, FHI, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Landon Myer,

    Affiliations: Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Marleen Temmerman,

    Affiliation: International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

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  • Ariane van der Straten,

    Affiliation: Women's Global Health Imperative, RTI International, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Deborah Watson-Jones,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom

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  • Marcel Zwahlen,

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Adriane Martin Hilber

    Affiliation: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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  • Published: February 15, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000416

About the Authors

Nicola Low, Kurt Schmidlin, Matthias Egger, Marcel Zwahlen, Adriane Martin Hilber
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
Matthew F. Chersich
Centre for Health Policy, School of Public Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Matthew F. Chersich, Marleen Temmerman
International Centre for Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
Suzanna C. Francis, Richard J. Hayes, Joelle Brown, Nuala McGrath, Deborah Watson-Jones
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
Janneke H. H. M. van de Wijgert
Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Jared M. Baeten
Departments of Global Health, Medicine, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Joelle Brown
Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America
Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, University of Witwatersrand, Hillbrow, South Africa
Rupert Kaul
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Nuala McGrath
Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Somkhele, South Africa
Charles Morrison
Clinical Sciences Department, FHI, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States of America
Landon Myer
Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Landon Myer
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America
Ariane van der Straten
Women's Global Health Imperative, RTI International, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: low@ispm.unibe.ch

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: NL MFC KS ME SCF JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ MZ AMH. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: NL MFC KS ME SCF JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ MZ AMH. Designed the experiments/the study: NL MFC ME SCF RJH DWJ AMH. Analyzed the data: NL KS RJH AMH. Collected data/did experiments for the study: MFC JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ AMH. Enrolled patients: JMB JB SDM RK NM CM LM DWJ. Wrote the first draft of the paper: NL. Contributed to the writing of the paper: ME SCF JHHMvdW RJH JMB JB RK NM CM LM MT AvdS DWJ MZ AMH. The contributions to the study of these authors was equivalent. Data management, deriving of study variables: MFC. Contributed data to the individual participant data analysis: SCF. Helped to develop the statistical models and reviewed analysis output: JHHMvdW. Contributed to data and analysis interpretation: JMB. Was the Principal Investigator on one of the component studies in the meta-analysis: CM. Advised on how to conduct the statistical analysis: MZ. Coordinated the colloboration between all included partners and was a PI on the project; contributed to the intrepreptation of results with the analytical team: AMH.