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Research Article

Antibiotic Selection Pressure and Macrolide Resistance in Nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae: A Cluster-Randomized Clinical Trial

  • Alison H. Skalet,

    Affiliations: Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Vicky Cevallos,

    Affiliation: Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Berhan Ayele,

    Affiliation: The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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  • Teshome Gebre,

    Affiliation: The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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  • Zhaoxia Zhou,

    Affiliation: Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • James H. Jorgensen,

    Affiliation: University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

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  • Mulat Zerihun,

    Affiliation: The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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  • Dereje Habte,

    Affiliation: The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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  • Yared Assefa,

    Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, University of Gondar, Ethiopia

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  • Paul M. Emerson,

    Affiliation: The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Bruce D. Gaynor,

    Affiliations: Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Travis C. Porco,

    Affiliations: Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Thomas M. Lietman,

    Affiliations: Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Jeremy D. Keenan mail

    jeremy.keenan@ucsf.edu

    Affiliations: Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: December 14, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000377

About the Authors

Alison H. Skalet, Vicky Cevallos, Zhaoxia Zhou, Bruce D. Gaynor, Travis C. Porco, Thomas M. Lietman, Jeremy D. Keenan
Francis I. Proctor Foundation for Research in Opthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Alison H. Skalet, Bruce D. Gaynor, Travis C. Porco, Thomas M. Lietman, Jeremy D. Keenan
Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Berhan Ayele, Teshome Gebre, Mulat Zerihun, Dereje Habte
The Carter Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
James H. Jorgensen
University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America
Yared Assefa
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Gondar, Ethiopia
Paul M. Emerson
The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Travis C. Porco, Thomas M. Lietman
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
Thomas M. Lietman
Institute for Global Health, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: jeremy.keenan@ucsf.edu

Competing Interests

JHJ was an Advisory board member for BD Diagnostics; and has received research support from BD Diagnostics, bioMerieux, Merck and Pfizer.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: AHS VC BA TG ZZ JHJ MZ DH YA PME BDG TCP TML JDK. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: AHS VC BA TG ZZ JHJ MZ DH YA PME BDG TCP TML JDK. Designed the experiments/the study: TG ZZ DH TML. Analyzed the data: ZZ JHJ BDG TCP TML JDK. Collected data/did experiments for the study: AHS VC BA TG ZZ JHJ MZ DH YA BDG TML. Enrolled patients: BA. Wrote the first draft of the paper: AHS. Contributed to the writing of the paper: BA TG JHJ DH PME BDG TCP TML JDK. Provided oversight and administrative support: TG. Contributed to interpretation of findings: PME.