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Research Article

Association between the 2008–09 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Pandemic H1N1 Illness during Spring–Summer 2009: Four Observational Studies from Canada

  • Danuta M. Skowronski mail,

    danuta.skowronski@bccdc.ca

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Gaston De Serres,

    Affiliation: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada

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  • Natasha S. Crowcroft,

    Affiliations: Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Naveed Z. Janjua,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Nicole Boulianne,

    Affiliation: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada

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  • Travis S. Hottes,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Laura C. Rosella,

    Affiliations: Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • James A. Dickinson,

    Affiliation: University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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  • Rodica Gilca,

    Affiliation: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada

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  • Pam Sethi,

    Affiliation: Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Najwa Ouhoummane,

    Affiliation: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada

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  • Donald J. Willison,

    Affiliation: Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Isabelle Rouleau,

    Affiliation: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada

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  • Martin Petric,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Kevin Fonseca,

    Affiliation: Alberta Provincial Laboratory, Alberta, Canada

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  • Steven J. Drews,

    Affiliation: University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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  • Anuradha Rebbapragada,

    Affiliation: Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Hugues Charest,

    Affiliation: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada

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  • Marie-Ève Hamelin,

    Affiliation: Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHUQ) Research Center, Laval University, Québec, Canada

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  • Guy Boivin,

    Affiliation: Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHUQ) Research Center, Laval University, Québec, Canada

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  • Jennifer L. Gardy,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Yan Li,

    Affiliation: National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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  • Trijntje L. Kwindt,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • David M. Patrick,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Robert C. Brunham,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • for the Canadian SAVOIR Team

    Members of the Canadian SAVOIR Team are listed in the Acknowledgments.

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  • Published: April 06, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000258

About the Authors

Danuta M. Skowronski, Naveed Z. Janjua, Travis S. Hottes, Martin Petric, Jennifer L. Gardy, Trijntje L. Kwindt, David M. Patrick, Robert C. Brunham
British Columbia Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Gaston De Serres, Nicole Boulianne, Rodica Gilca, Najwa Ouhoummane, Isabelle Rouleau, Hugues Charest
Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada
Natasha S. Crowcroft, Laura C. Rosella, Pam Sethi, Donald J. Willison, Anuradha Rebbapragada
Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Natasha S. Crowcroft, Laura C. Rosella
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
James A. Dickinson, Steven J. Drews
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Kevin Fonseca
Alberta Provincial Laboratory, Alberta, Canada
Marie-Ève Hamelin, Guy Boivin
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHUQ) Research Center, Laval University, Québec, Canada
Yan Li
National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: danuta.skowronski@bccdc.ca

Competing Interests

DMS has previously received research grant funding from GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi-Pasteur for separate studies. GDS and NB have received research grant funding from GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi-Pasteur for separate studies. GB has received funding from GlaxoSmithKline for unrelated projects. SAVOIR contributor Allison McGeer has received investigator initiated research grant funding from GlaxoSmithKline, and speaking honoraria from GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi-Pasteur.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: DMS GDS NSC NZJ NB TSH LCR JAD RG PS NO DJW IR MP KF SJD AR HC MH GB JLG YL TLK DMP RCB. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: DMS GDS NSC NZJ NB TSH LCR JAD RG PS NO DJW IR MP KF SJD AR HC MH GB JLG YL TLK DMP RCB. Designed the experiments/the study: DMS GDS NSC NZJ NB TSH LCR RG PS IR MP SJD AR GB DMP. Analyzed the data: DMS GDS NSC NZJ NB TSH LCR RG NO IR MH YL DMP RCB. Collected data/did experiments for the study: DMS GDS NSC NZJ NB JAD RG PS MP KF SJD AR HC MH GB YL TLK. Enrolled patients: GDS NSC JAD RG PS SJD GB. Wrote the first draft of the paper: DMS. Contributed to the writing of the paper: DMS GDS NSC NZJ NB TSH LCR JAD RG PS DJW IR MP KF SJD AR GB TLK DMP RCB. Overall Principal Investigator for the sentinel study and Principal Investigator for the British Columbia component: DMS. First author responsible for drafting and revising the overall manuscript describing the four studies, with collective co-author input: DMS. Principal Investigator for the Quebec component of the sentinel study and Principal Investigator for the Quebec case-control and cohort studies: GDS. Principal Investigator for the Ontario component of the sentinel study and Principal Investigator of the Ontario case-control study: NSC. Principal Investigator for the Alberta component of the sentinel study: JAD. Contributed to the design of the Ontario case-control study data collection strategy: DJW. As clinical virologist and co-investigator on the sentinel study, supervised the diagnostic testing for influenza for patient specimens from British Columbia (MP), Alberta (KF), Ontario (SJD) or Quebec (HC). Member of the original granting team responsible for setting up a network in the province of Ontario that collected data and supported clinical lab testing: SJD. Designed, executed, and analyzed the bioinformatics portion of the study: JLG. Developed molecular assay for detection of pandemic H1N1 virus: YL. Designed the data entry tool and coordinated implementation with provinces participating in the sentinel study: TLK