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Research Article

Geographic Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus Causing Invasive Infections in Europe: A Molecular-Epidemiological Analysis

  • Hajo Grundmann mail,

    Hajo.Grundmann@rivm.nl

    Affiliations: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands, Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre, Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • David M. Aanensen,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Cees C. van den Wijngaard,

    Affiliation: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

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  • Brian G. Spratt,

    Affiliation: Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Dag Harmsen,

    Affiliation: Department of Periodontology, University Hospital Münster, Germany

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  • Alexander W. Friedrich,

    Affiliation: Institute of Hygiene, University Hospital Münster, Germany

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  • the European Staphylococcal Reference Laboratory Working Group¶

    Membership of the European Staphylococcal Reference Laboratory Working Group is provided in the Acknowledgments.

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  • Published: January 12, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000215

About the Authors

Hajo Grundmann, Cees C. van den Wijngaard
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Hajo Grundmann
Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre, Groningen, The Netherlands
David M. Aanensen, Brian G. Spratt
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Dag Harmsen
Department of Periodontology, University Hospital Münster, Germany
Alexander W. Friedrich
Institute of Hygiene, University Hospital Münster, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: Hajo.Grundmann@rivm.nl

Competing Interests

DH is one of the developers of the Ridom StaphType software and the SpaServer mentioned in the manuscript. The client software is distributed and sold by the company Ridom GmbH, which is partially owned by him. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: HG DMA CCvdW BGS DH AWF. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: HG DMA CCvdW BGS DH AWF. Designed the experiments/the study: HG DH. Analyzed the data: HG CCvdW BGS AWF. Collected data/did experiments for the study: HG. Wrote the first draft of the paper: HG. Contributed to the writing of the paper: HG CCvdW BGS DH AWF. Developed the public domain Web-based interactive mapping tool: DMA. Carried out spatial scan statistics: CCvdW. Provided scientific advice, co-developed mapping tools, co-edited manuscript: BGS. Developed the SpaTyper software, co-organised the capacity building workshops, maintained and serviced the SpaServer: DH. Maintained the SeqNet.org database, co-organised the capacity building workshops, responsible for proficiency testing, performed BURP-clustering: AWF.