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Research Article

School Playground Surfacing and Arm Fractures in Children: A Cluster Randomized Trial Comparing Sand to Wood Chip Surfaces

  • Andrew W. Howard mail,

    andrew.howard@sickkids.ca

    Affiliations: Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Colin Macarthur,

    Affiliation: Bloorview Kids Rehab, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Linda Rothman,

    Affiliation: Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Andrew Willan,

    Affiliation: Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Alison K. Macpherson

    Affiliation: Department of Kinesiology, York University, Toronto, Canada

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  • Published: December 15, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000195

About the Authors

Andrew W. Howard
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Andrew W. Howard, Linda Rothman, Andrew Willan
Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Colin Macarthur
Bloorview Kids Rehab, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Alison K. Macpherson
Department of Kinesiology, York University, Toronto, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: andrew.howard@sickkids.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: AH CM LR ARW AM. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: AH CM LR ARW AM. Designed the experiments/the study: AH ARW AM. Analyzed the data: AH LR ARW. Collected data/did experiments for the study: AH LR. Enrolled patients: AH. Wrote the first draft of the paper: AH LR. Contributed to the writing of the paper: AH CM LR ARW AM.