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Research Article

Effects of Genital Ulcer Disease and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 on the Efficacy of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Analyses from the Rakai Trials

  • Ronald H. Gray mail,

    rgray@jhsph.edu

    Affiliation: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • David Serwadda,

    Affiliations: School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda

    X
  • Aaron A. R. Tobian,

    Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Michael Z. Chen,

    Affiliation: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Frederick Makumbi,

    Affiliations: School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda

    X
  • Tara Suntoke,

    Affiliation: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Godfrey Kigozi,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda

    X
  • Fred Nalugoda,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda

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  • Boaz Iga,

    Affiliation: Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda

    X
  • Thomas C. Quinn,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Lawrence H. Moulton,

    Affiliation: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Oliver Laeyendecker,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Steven J. Reynolds,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Xiangrong Kong,

    Affiliation: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Maria J. Wawer

    Affiliation: Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Published: November 24, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000187

About the Authors

Ronald H. Gray, Michael Z. Chen, Tara Suntoke, Lawrence H. Moulton, Xiangrong Kong, Maria J. Wawer
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
David Serwadda, Frederick Makumbi
School of Public Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
David Serwadda, Frederick Makumbi, Godfrey Kigozi, Fred Nalugoda, Boaz Iga
Rakai Health Sciences Program, Entebbe, Uganda
Aaron A. R. Tobian
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Thomas C. Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker, Steven J. Reynolds
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Thomas C. Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker, Steven J. Reynolds
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rgray@jhsph.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: RHG DS AART MZC FM TS GK FN BI TCQ LHM OL SJR XK MJW. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: RHG DS AART MZC FM TS GK FN BI TCQ LHM OL SJR XK MJW. Designed the experiments/the study: RHG GK FN TCQ LHM MJW. Analyzed the data: RHG AART MZC FM TS TCQ LHM OL XK. Collected data/did experiments for the study: RHG AART MZC TS GK BI TCQ OL SJR. Enrolled patients: RHG GK. Wrote the first draft of the paper: RHG. Contributed to the writing of the paper: RHG AART GK FN BI TCQ LHM OL SJR XK MJW.