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Research Article

Polyclonal B Cell Differentiation and Loss of Gastrointestinal Tract Germinal Centers in the Earliest Stages of HIV-1 Infection

  • Marc C. Levesque equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Marc C. Levesque, M. Anthony Moody

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • M. Anthony Moody equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Marc C. Levesque, M. Anthony Moody

    moody007@mc.duke.edu

    Affiliations: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Kwan-Ki Hwang,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Dawn J. Marshall,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • John F. Whitesides,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Joshua D. Amos,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Thaddeus C. Gurley,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Sallie Allgood,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Benjamin B. Haynes,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Nathan A. Vandergrift,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Steven Plonk,

    Affiliation: The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Daniel C. Parker,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Myron S. Cohen,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Georgia D. Tomaras,

    Affiliations: Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Paul A. Goepfert,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

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  • George M. Shaw,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America

    X
  • Jörn E. Schmitz,

    Affiliation: Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Joseph J. Eron,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Nicholas J. Shaheen,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Charles B. Hicks,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Hua-Xin Liao,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Martin Markowitz,

    Affiliation: Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Garnett Kelsoe,

    Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • David M. Margolis,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America

    X
  • Barton F. Haynes

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America, The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

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  • Published: July 07, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000107

About the Authors

Marc C. Levesque, Sallie Allgood, Charles B. Hicks, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F. Haynes
Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Marc C. Levesque, Georgia D. Tomaras, Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F. Haynes
Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
M. Anthony Moody, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Dawn J. Marshall, John F. Whitesides, Joshua D. Amos, Thaddeus C. Gurley, Benjamin B. Haynes, Nathan A. Vandergrift, Steven Plonk, Georgia D. Tomaras, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F. Haynes
The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
M. Anthony Moody
Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Daniel C. Parker, Myron S. Cohen, Joseph J. Eron, Nicholas J. Shaheen, David M. Margolis
Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Georgia D. Tomaras
Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
Paul A. Goepfert, George M. Shaw
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America
Jörn E. Schmitz
Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Martin Markowitz
Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: moody007@mc.duke.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: MCL MAM KKH DJM JFW JDA TCG SA BBH NAV SP DCP MC GT PAG GS JS JE NJS CBH HXL MM GHK DMM BFH. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: MCL MAM KKH DJM JFW JDA TCG SA BBH NAV SP DCP MC GT PAG GS JS JE NJS CBH HXL MM GHK DMM BFH. Designed the experiments/the study: MCL MAM KKH TCG SA DCP GT GS JS DMM BFH. Analyzed the data: MAM KKH DJM JDA TCG SA BBH DCP MC GT PAG HXL BFH. Collected data/did experiments for the study: MCL MAM KKH DJM JFW JDA TCG SA BBH NAV SP DCP MC GT GS JE NJS CBH HXL MM GHK BFH. Enrolled patients: MC PAG GS JE CBH MM DMM. Wrote the first draft of the paper: MCL BFH. Contributed to the writing of the paper: MCL MAM BBH NAV DCP GT PAG GS JS CBH HXL GHK DMM BFH.