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Research Article

The Preventable Causes of Death in the United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors

  • Goodarz Danaei,

    Affiliations: Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Initiative for Global Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Eric L. Ding,

    Affiliation: Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Dariush Mozaffarian,

    Affiliations: Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Ben Taylor,

    Affiliations: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

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  • Jürgen Rehm,

    Affiliations: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany

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  • Christopher J. L. Murray,

    Affiliation: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, The University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Majid Ezzati mail

    majid_ezzati@harvard.edu

    Affiliations: Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Initiative for Global Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Published: April 28, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000058

About the Authors

Goodarz Danaei, Eric L. Ding, Dariush Mozaffarian, Majid Ezzati
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Goodarz Danaei, Majid Ezzati
Initiative for Global Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Dariush Mozaffarian
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Ben Taylor, Jürgen Rehm
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Ben Taylor, Jürgen Rehm
Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Jürgen Rehm
Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Christopher J. L. Murray
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, The University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: majid_ezzati@harvard.edu

Competing Interests

The Academic Editor declares that he had no competing interests when the first version of this paper was submitted. After a revised version was submitted, he started working on the global burden of disease from climate change project at the WHO in Geneva. Majid Ezzati is also working on the Global Burden of Disease project.

Author Contributions

ICMJE criteria for authorship read and met: GD ELD DM BT JR CJLM ME. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: GD ELD DM BT JR CJLM ME. Designed the experiments/the study: GD CJLM ME. Analyzed the data: GD ELD DM BT JR. Wrote the first draft of the paper: GD ME. Contributed to the writing of the paper: ELD DM BT JR CJLM. Supervised the research: ME. Participated in collecting data on nutritional exposures and relative risks related to the risk estimates: GD ELD DM. Collected specific data relevant to the alcohol section of the paper: JR BT.