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Research Article

Upper-Room Ultraviolet Light and Negative Air Ionization to Prevent Tuberculosis Transmission

  • A. Roderick Escombe mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: rod.escombe@imperial.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Wellcome Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Perú

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  • David A. J Moore,

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Wellcome Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Perú, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Robert H Gilman,

    Affiliations: Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Perú, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Marcos Navincopa,

    Affiliations: Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú, Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima, Perú

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  • Eduardo Ticona,

    Affiliation: Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú

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  • Bailey Mitchell,

    Affiliation: Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., United States of America

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  • Catherine Noakes,

    Affiliation: School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

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  • Carlos Martínez,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Patricia Sheen,

    Affiliation: Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú

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  • Rocio Ramirez,

    Affiliation: Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima, Perú

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  • Willi Quino,

    Affiliation: Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú

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  • Armando Gonzalez,

    Affiliation: Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima, Perú

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  • Jon S Friedland,

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Wellcome Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

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  • Carlton A Evans

    Affiliations: Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Wellcome Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Perú, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: March 17, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000043

About the Authors

A. Roderick Escombe, David A. J Moore, Jon S Friedland, Carlton A Evans
Department of Infectious Diseases & Immunity, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
A. Roderick Escombe, David A. J Moore, Jon S Friedland, Carlton A Evans
Wellcome Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
A. Roderick Escombe, David A. J Moore, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Perú
David A. J Moore, Robert H Gilman, Patricia Sheen, Willi Quino, Carlton A Evans
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú
David A. J Moore, Robert H Gilman, Carlos Martínez, Carlton A Evans
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Marcos Navincopa, Eduardo Ticona
Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú
Marcos Navincopa, Rocio Ramirez, Armando Gonzalez
Universidad Nacional Mayor San Marcos, Lima, Perú
Bailey Mitchell
Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., United States of America
Catherine Noakes
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: rod.escombe@imperial.ac.uk

Competing Interests

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest regarding this paper, apart from Bailey Mitchell, who invented the ESCS ionizer, which was patented while he was a USDA scientist. The patent is owned by USDA. The senior author, Carlton Evans, has no relationship with Evans Vaccines, which supplied the PPD.

Author Contributions

ARE, DAJM, RHG, MN, ET, BM, CN, AG, JSF, and CAE contributed to the study design, data interpretation, and writing of this manuscript. ARE, CM, PS, RR, and WQ undertook data collection, and CM, PS, RR, and WQ additionally contributed to data interpretation and approved the final manuscript. ARE had access to all data and is the guarantor of the manuscript.