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Research Article

Ectopic Lymphoid Structures Support Ongoing Production of Class-Switched Autoantibodies in Rheumatoid Synovium

  • Frances Humby equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Frances Humby, Michele Bombardieri

    Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom

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  • Michele Bombardieri equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Frances Humby, Michele Bombardieri

    Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom

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  • Antonio Manzo,

    Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom

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  • Stephen Kelly,

    Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom

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  • Mark C Blades,

    Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom

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  • Bruce Kirkham,

    Affiliation: Department of Rheumatology, Kings College London, Guy's Hospital, St Thomas Street, London, United Kingdom

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  • Jo Spencer,

    Affiliation: Division of Infection, Immunity and Inflammatory Diseases, Kings College London, Guy's Hospital, St Thomas Street, London, United Kingdom

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  • Costantino Pitzalis mail

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: c.pitzalis@qmul.ac.uk

    Affiliation: William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: January 13, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0060001

About the Authors

Frances Humby, Michele Bombardieri, Antonio Manzo, Stephen Kelly, Mark C Blades, Costantino Pitzalis
William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London, United Kingdom
Bruce Kirkham
Department of Rheumatology, Kings College London, Guy's Hospital, St Thomas Street, London, United Kingdom
Jo Spencer
Division of Infection, Immunity and Inflammatory Diseases, Kings College London, Guy's Hospital, St Thomas Street, London, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: c.pitzalis@qmul.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

FH and MB conceived the study design, performed the experiments, interpreted data and wrote the manuscript. AM performed experiments, interpreted data and contributed to methodology and manuscript preparation. SK collected tissue samples. MCB performed tissue transplantation and interpreted data. BK contributed to manuscript preparation. JS contributed to methodology and critically reviewed the manuscript. CP led the team effort as well as the study design, data interpretation and manuscript preparation.