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Research Article

The Effect of Universal Influenza Immunization on Mortality and Health Care Use

  • Jeffrey C Kwong mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: jeff.kwong@utoronto.ca

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Thérèse A Stukel,

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Jenny Lim,

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Allison J McGeer,

    Affiliations: Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Microbiology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Ross E. G Upshur,

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Primary Care Research Unit, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Helen Johansen,

    Affiliation: Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Christie Sambell,

    Affiliation: Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • William W Thompson,

    Affiliation: Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Deva Thiruchelvam,

    Affiliation: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Fawziah Marra,

    Affiliation: British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Lawrence W Svenson,

    Affiliations: Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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  • Douglas G Manuel

    Affiliations: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: October 28, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050211

About the Authors

Jeffrey C Kwong, Thérèse A Stukel, Jenny Lim, Ross E. G Upshur, Deva Thiruchelvam, Douglas G Manuel
Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Jeffrey C Kwong, Ross E. G Upshur, Douglas G Manuel
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Jeffrey C Kwong, Ross E. G Upshur
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Thérèse A Stukel
Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Allison J McGeer
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Allison J McGeer
Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Microbiology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Ross E. G Upshur
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Primary Care Research Unit, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Helen Johansen
Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Christie Sambell
Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
William W Thompson
Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America
Fawziah Marra
British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Lawrence W Svenson
Alberta Health and Wellness, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Lawrence W Svenson
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Lawrence W Svenson
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: jeff.kwong@utoronto.ca

Competing Interests

AJM reports receiving travel grants from Sanofi Pasteur and Solvay Pharmaceuticals for speaking at meetings, and payment from Sanofi Pasteur for chairing a safety committee for a clinical trial.

Author Contributions

JCK was involved in all aspects of the study. TAS, JL, AJM, REGU, HJ, WWT, FM, LWS, and DGM provided input on study design and interpretation of results. TAS provided statistical expertise. CS, FM, and LWS assisted with data collection. DT assisted with data analyses. DGM provided overall supervision and guidance. JCK, TAS, JL, AJM, REGU, HJ, CS, WWT, DT, FM, LWS, and DGM critically reviewed and approved the manuscript for publication.