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Research Article

Toward a Global View of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

  • Louisa Degenhardt mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: l.degenhardt@unsw.edu.au

    Affiliation: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

    X
  • Wai-Tat Chiu,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Nancy Sampson,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Ronald C Kessler,

    Affiliation: Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • James C Anthony,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Matthias Angermeyer,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Ronny Bruffaerts,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurosciences and Psychiatry, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium

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  • Giovanni de Girolamo,

    Affiliation: Health Care Research Agency, Bologna, Italy

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  • Oye Gureje,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

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  • Yueqin Huang,

    Affiliation: Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China

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  • Aimee Karam,

    Affiliation: Institute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC), Beirut, Lebanon

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  • Stanislav Kostyuchenko,

    Affiliation: Ukrainian Psychiatric Association, Kiev, Ukraine

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  • Jean Pierre Lepine,

    Affiliation: Hospital Fernand Widal, Paris, France

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  • Maria Elena Medina Mora,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico

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  • Yehuda Neumark,

    Affiliation: Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel

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  • J. Hans Ormel,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • Alejandra Pinto-Meza,

    Affiliation: Sant Joan de Déu- Serveis du Salud Mental (SSM), Barcelona, Spain

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  • José Posada-Villa,

    Affiliation: Saldarriaga Concha Foundation, Bogotá, Colombia

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  • Dan J Stein,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa

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  • Tadashi Takeshima,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan

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  • J. Elisabeth Wells

    Affiliation: Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Science, Christchurch, New Zealand

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  • Published: July 01, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050141

About the Authors

Louisa Degenhardt
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Wai-Tat Chiu, Nancy Sampson, Ronald C Kessler
Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
James C Anthony
Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, Lansing, Michigan, United States of America
Matthias Angermeyer
Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Ronny Bruffaerts
Department of Neurosciences and Psychiatry, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium
Giovanni de Girolamo
Health Care Research Agency, Bologna, Italy
Oye Gureje
Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Yueqin Huang
Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China
Aimee Karam
Institute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC), Beirut, Lebanon
Stanislav Kostyuchenko
Ukrainian Psychiatric Association, Kiev, Ukraine
Jean Pierre Lepine
Hospital Fernand Widal, Paris, France
Maria Elena Medina Mora
Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico
Yehuda Neumark
Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel
J. Hans Ormel
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Alejandra Pinto-Meza
Sant Joan de Déu- Serveis du Salud Mental (SSM), Barcelona, Spain
José Posada-Villa
Saldarriaga Concha Foundation, Bogotá, Colombia
Dan J Stein
Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Tadashi Takeshima
National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan
J. Elisabeth Wells
Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Science, Christchurch, New Zealand

Corresponding Author

Email: l.degenhardt@unsw.edu.au

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

RCK, JCA, GdG, AK, JPL, JHO, and DJS designed the experiments/the study. LD, W-TC, NS, RCK, MA, RB, GdG, OG, AK, SK, JPL, MEMM, YN, JHO, JP-V, DJS, and JEW collected data or did experiments for the study. W-TC, RCK, JCA, GdG, YH, AK, and MEMM analysed the data. RCK, MA, RB, GdG, AK, JPL, and JHO enrolled patients. LD wrote the first draft of the paper. LD, W-TC, RCK, JCA, MA, RB, GdG, OG, YH, AK, SK, JPL, MEMM, YN, JHO, AP-M, JP-V, and JEW contributed to writing the paper.