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Research Article

Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Diseases

  • Joël Mossong mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: joel.mossong@lns.etat.lu

    Affiliations: Microbiology Unit, Laboratoire National de Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Centre de Recherche Public Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg

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  • Niel Hens,

    Affiliation: Center for Statistics, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium

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  • Mark Jit,

    Affiliation: Modelling and Economics Unit, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom

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  • Philippe Beutels,

    Affiliation: Unit Health Economic and Modeling Infectious Diseases, Center for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Kari Auranen,

    Affiliation: Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Rafael Mikolajczyk,

    Affiliation: School of Public Health, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany

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  • Marco Massari,

    Affiliation: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy

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  • Stefania Salmaso,

    Affiliation: Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy

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  • Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba,

    Affiliation: Department of Mathematics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy

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  • Jacco Wallinga,

    Affiliation: Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

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  • Janneke Heijne,

    Affiliation: Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

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  • Malgorzata Sadkowska-Todys,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland

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  • Magdalena Rosinska,

    Affiliation: National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland

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  • W. John Edmunds

    Affiliation: Modelling and Economics Unit, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: March 25, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050074

About the Authors

Joël Mossong
Microbiology Unit, Laboratoire National de Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Joël Mossong
Centre de Recherche Public Santé, Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Niel Hens
Center for Statistics, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium
Mark Jit, W. John Edmunds
Modelling and Economics Unit, Health Protection Agency Centre for Infections, London, United Kingdom
Philippe Beutels
Unit Health Economic and Modeling Infectious Diseases, Center for the Evaluation of Vaccination, Vaccine & Infectious Disease Institute, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Kari Auranen
Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
Rafael Mikolajczyk
School of Public Health, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany
Marco Massari, Stefania Salmaso
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy
Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba
Department of Mathematics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Jacco Wallinga, Janneke Heijne
Centre for Infectious Disease Control Netherlands, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Malgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Magdalena Rosinska
National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland

Corresponding Author

Email: joel.mossong@lns.etat.lu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

JM, NH, MJ, JW, and WJE drafted the manuscript in consultation with all the other authors; the original idea and contact diary were conceived by WJE. JM conducted a pilot study on an adapted diary, and coordinated overall survey design and data collection. JM, MJ, PB, KA, RM, MM, GST, JW, JH, MST, and MR conducted the surveys in their respective countries. NH conducted the data mining and surface smoothing. JW and JH conducted the epidemic modelling. All authors approved the final manuscript.