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Research Article

Exploring the Developmental Overnutrition Hypothesis Using Parental–Offspring Associations and FTO as an Instrumental Variable

  • Debbie A Lawlor mail,

    To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: d.a.lawlor@bristol.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Nicholas J Timpson,

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Roger M Harbord,

    Affiliation: Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Sam Leary,

    Affiliation: Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Andy Ness,

    Affiliation: Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Mark I McCarthy,

    Affiliations: Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Timothy M Frayling,

    Affiliations: Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom, Diabetes Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

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  • Andrew T Hattersley,

    Affiliations: Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom, Diabetes Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

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  • George Davey Smith

    Affiliations: Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

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  • Published: March 11, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050033

About the Authors

Debbie A Lawlor, Nicholas J Timpson, George Davey Smith
Medical Research Council Centre for Causal Analyses in Translational Epidemiology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Debbie A Lawlor, Roger M Harbord, George Davey Smith
Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Nicholas J Timpson, Mark I McCarthy
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Sam Leary, Andy Ness
Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
Mark I McCarthy
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
Timothy M Frayling, Andrew T Hattersley
Genetics of Complex Traits, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom
Timothy M Frayling, Andrew T Hattersley
Diabetes Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: d.a.lawlor@bristol.ac.uk

Author Contributions

DAL designed the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the first draft of the paper. NJT and RMH analyzed the data and contributed to writing the paper. SL prepared the dataset, analyzed the data, and contributed to writing the paper. AN contributed to writing the paper. MIM and GDS designed the experiments and contributed to writing the paper. TMF collected data and contributed to writing the paper. ATH designed experiments, collected data, and contributed to writing the paper.